We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Junkers Ju 88H
The Ju 88H was produced in response to an RLM request for ultra-long range reconnaissance aircraft to operate over the Atlantic.
Junkers responded with a stretched version of the D-1. The fuselage was made eleven feet longer, increasing the fuel capacity of the aircraft to 2,160 gallons and giving it a range of 3,200 miles. The H-1 was powered by two 1,700hp BMW 801 radial engines. It was armed with two 7.9mm MG 81 fixed guns under the fuselage and one flexible MG 81 in the rear cockpit. It was equipped with the FuG 200 Hohentwiel search radar. Ten were built.
The H-2 was a Zerstörer variant of the H-1. The cameras and radar were removed and replaced with two 20mm cannon in the nose (MG 151) and four more MG 151s under the port fuselage. Only ten were built.
The H-3 would have been an even longer reconnaissance aircraft, with another 9ft 9in added to the fuselage, increasing the fuel load once again. It was to be powered by two 1,776hp Jumo 213A-12 engines. This version only reached the prototype stage.
The H-4 would have been a Zerstörer based on the H-3.
Introduction - Bomber - Fighter - Ju 88A - Ju 88B - Ju 88C - Ju 88D - Ju 88G - Ju 88H - Ju 88P - Ju 88R - Ju 88S - Ju 88T
Junkers Ju 88H - History
Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III, trainer version.
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III
The Reichenberg Fi 103A-1/RE-III was the trainer version of the RIV. The front position was for the flight instructor. Two fuselages were found by the allied forces at the end of the War, at Tramm, near Dannenbergbut, Germany. Length: 8 m (26.24 ft) Wingspan: 5.72 m (18.76 ft) Loaded weight: 2,250 kg (4,960 lb) Power plant: 1 × Argus As 014 pulse jet, 350 kgf (770 lbf). Performance: Max speed: 800 km/h (500 mph (in diving flight) Cruise speed: 650 km/h (400 mph). Range: 330 km (205 miles).
The idea of putting a pilot in the Fi 103 V1 for special operations was proposed by Hanna Skorzeny, Otto Skorzeny and Heinrich Lange. Lange sought to form a special group of pilots who if need be would sacrifice themselves. At the same time the DFS were looking into such a idea since 1943, because tests using the Me P.1079 (Me 328) had found it was unsuitable. In 1944 the DFS was given the go ahead to develop such a weapon, given the code name "Reichenberg". With in fourteen days the DFS had designed, built, and tested the five different models needed to convert the volunteer pilots. By October 1944 about 175 R-IVs were ready for action.
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re I: Two man unpowered trainer
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re II: Two man powered trainer
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III: One man powered trainer
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV: Operational model
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re V: Powered trainer for the He 162 with a shorter nose
The Re I was towed in to the air by a Henschel Hs 126, all the rest were air launched from the Heinkel He 111 H-22. Volunteers were trained in ordinary gliders in order to give them the feel of unpowered flight. The pilots then progressed to special gliders with shortened wings which could dive at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph). After this, they progressed to the dual-control Re II.
Training began on the Re I and Re II and although landing the aircraft on a skid was difficult, it handled well, and it was anticipated that the Leonidas Squadron would soon be using the machines. Albert Speer wrote to Hitler on 28 July 1944 to say that he opposed wasting the men and machines on the Allies in France and suggested it would be better to deploy them against Russian power stations.
The first real flight was performed in September 1944 at the Erprobungsstelle Rechlin, the Reichenberg being dropped from a He 111. However, it subsequently crashed after the pilot lost control when he accidentally jettisoned the canopy. A second flight the next day also ended in a crash, and subsequent test flights were carried out by test pilots Heinz Kensche and Hanna Reitsch. Reitsch herself experienced several crashes from which she survived unscathed. On 5 November 1944 during the second test flight of the Re III, a wing fell off due to vibrations, but Heinz Kensche managed to parachute to safety, albeit with some difficulty due to the cramped cockpit.
By October 1944 about 175 Fi 103 Reichenberg Re IV's were ready for combat with some 60 Luftwaffe personnel and 30 personnel from Skorzeny's commando unit, who joined Leonidas Staffel 5.II/KG 200(Heinrich Lange's special unit led by himself) to fly the aircraft in to combat. Werner Baumbach assumed command of KG 200 in October 1944, however, the whole operation was shelved in favour of the "Mistel" program. Baumbach and Speer eventually met with Hitler on 15 March 1945 and managed to convince him that suicide missions were not part of the German warrior tradition, and later that day Baumbach ordered the Reichenberg unit to be disbanded.
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV with British troops in 1945.
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV
The Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg IV was basically a manned version of the Fieseler Fi 103, V-1 flying bomb. The Fi 103R-IV had simple flight instruments in the cockpit and the canopy had guidelines for calculating the correct dive angle for attacks. The Reichenberg was powered by one 772-lb thrust Argus 109 014 pulse-jet engine. It had a maximum speed of 404-mph. Its wing span was 18’9”, and its length was 26’3”. It was armed with an 850 kg warhead
In theory, this wasn’t a Kamikaze-style suicide weapon, since the pilot was intended to bail out after aiming the aircraft/missile at its target. In practice, this would have presented certain difficulties, since the cockpit was placed directly underneath the jet intake. Attacks were to be carried out by the “Leonidas Squadron”, Group V of the Luftwaffe’s Kampfgeschwader 200.
The engine was the same one used on the V-1, one 2.94 kN As 109-014 pulse-jet. Versions planned were the Fi 103R-I and R-II training gliders, R-III powered trainer, and R-IV operational version. About 175 were built, and a few test flights were made by the R-III, but none flew operationally.
The Leonidas Squadron, part of KG 200, had been set up as a suicide squadron. Volunteers were required to sign a declaration which said, “I hereby voluntarily apply to be enrolled in the suicide group as part of a human glider-bomb. I fully understand that employment in this capacity will entail my own death.” Initially, both the Messerschmitt Me 328 and the Fieseler Fi 103 (better known as the V-1 flying bomb) were considered as suitable aircraft, but the Fi 103 was passed over in favour of the Me 328 equipped with a 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) bomb.
However, problems were experienced in converting the Me 328 and Heinrich Himmler wanted to cancel the project. Otto Skorzeny, who had been investigating the possibility of using manned torpedoes against Allied shipping, was briefed by Hitler to revive the project, and he contacted famous test pilot Hanna Reitsch. The Fi 103 was reappraised and since it seemed to offer the pilot a slim chance of surviving, it was adopted for the project.
The project was given the codename “Reichenberg” after the capital of the former Czechoslovakian territory “Reichsgau Sudetenland” (present-day Liberec), while the aircraft themselves were referred to as “Reichenberg-Geräte” (Reichenberg apparatus).
In the summer of 1944 the DFS (German Research Institute for Sailplane Flight) at Ainring took on the task of developing a manned version of the Fi 103, and an example was made ready for testing within days and a production line was established at Dannenberg.
The V-1 was transformed into the Reichenberg by adding a small, cramped cockpit at the point of the fuselage that was immediately ahead of the pulsejet’s intake, where the standard V-1’s compressed-air cylinders were fitted. The cockpit had basic flight instruments and a plywood bucket seat. The single-piece canopy incorporated an armoured front panel and opened to the side to allow entry. The two displaced compressed-air cylinders were replaced by a single one, fitted in the rear in the space which normally accommodated the V-1’s autopilot. The wings were fitted with hardened edges to cut the cables of barrage balloons.
It was proposed that a He 111 bomber would carry either one or two Reichenbergs beneath its wings, releasing them close to the target. The pilots would then steer their aircraft towards the target, jettisoning the cockpit canopy shortly before impact and bailing out. It was estimated that the chances of a pilot surviving such a bailout were less than 1% due to the proximity of the pulsejet’s intake to the cockpit.
The suicide aircraft Reichenberg originated from a suggestion by Flugkapitan Hanna Reitsch to Hitler at the Berghof on 28 February 1944. She merely stated that the targeting characteristics of the V-l flying bomb were not good and requested permission to fly a V-l to see if the defects could not be improved. At first Hitler demurred, pointing to the more efficient jet aircraft which would soon be available to the Luftwaffe in large numbers. Suddenly, Hitler seemed to turn the matter over in his mind and surprisingly gave her his approval for a small experimental batch.
A senior aeronautical engineer at KdE, Heinz Kensche, was given the task of working on the complex problems. He decided that the development should proceed in five stages:
Re 1 single-seater, landing skid, trainer without engine.
Re 2 two-seater, landing skid, trainer without engine.
Re 3 two-seater, landing skid, trainer, with As 014 ramjet Re 4 single-seater, operational machine, with As 014 ramjet Re 5 single-seater, trainer, short fuselage, with As 014 ramjet
The plan was to give operational versions a thin-shelled SC 800 aerial mine for land objectives and a torpedo warhead for shipping targets. The development lasted from the summer of 1944 to at least March 1945, but no missions were flown with a piloted V-l. A small development team was assembled under the cover name ‘Segelflug GmbH Reichenberg. This had the cooperation of the SS and consisted of three engineers and 15 experienced supervisors and technical staff. Henschel made available a small hangar for the secret construction. Series production was scheduled at Gollnow (Goleniow) near the large Altendamm aerodrome at Stettin. The machines would be made from large sub-assemblies made at Gottartowitz/Upper Silesia (Gotarowice) and Konigsberg, with new cabin and nose components being added. The team started work at once, converting an existing V-l flying bomb to see if it could be flown manually. It had to be simple and based substantially on the standard Fi 103 to spare all unnecessary costs. Above the spartan cockpit was an Argus-Schmidt As 014 ramjet. As a rule the machine would be brought close to the target by a parent aircraft but on release could fly up to 300 kilometres under ramjet power. Once the design was completed, the drawings were forwarded to the manufacturer.
In August 1944 Henschel received a technical proposal for the development and construction of 250 prototypes with ramjet. The Commissioner for the Reichenberg, Engineer Oberst Platz, also ordered 21 two-seater trainers. Large components supplied to Henschel were to be modified and completed with its in-house parts. The final assembly would be at Gollnow in December 1944, although presumably not on the airfield there, since this lay well to the east, and in the end Dannenberg was chosen instead.
Re 1 was to be the only version with a detachable skid. This enabled quick drainage of the fuel. Re 1 V-l was completed by the beginning of September 1944 and transported to Larz near Rechlin. The glider was carried to 4,000 metres by a Rechlin test centre He 111 and released. Pilot on this first flight was engineer Willy Fiedler, who had played a major role in the development. A second pilot, engineer Rudolf Ziegler, injured his spine when making a hard landing on uneven ground near Rechlin and had to retire from the roster. He was replaced by senior engineer Herbert Pangratz who was also seriously injured when forced to make an emergency landing after the cockpit canopy came free.
At the beginning of October 1944 the first Re 2 versions arrived at Larz. Senior engineer Heinz Kensche and Unteroffizier Schenk made the maiden flight in the two seater Re 2 V-l. At midday on 12 October the machine was released from an He 111 H at altitude and returned safely. The next two flights from Larz took place on 13 and 19 October when Schenk partnered pilot Kachel. On further flights from Rechlin, Augstein, Meisner and Pfannenstein occupied the narrow cockpit. During the flight trials in which Hanna Reitsch was involved she crashed two Reichenbergs. It was almost impossible to escape from the aircraft, especially at high speed in gliding flight, the chances of doing so successfully being rated at 100-1.
The first and possibly only Re 3, a two-seater with As 014 ramjet propulsion, flew three times on 4 and 5 November 1944 with Heinz Kensche at the controls. The first two flights were relatively problem-free and lasted about eight minutes. On the third flight, on 5 November, the port wing began to disengage in flight forcing Kensche to bale out at 450 km/hr (280 mph). Only with the greatest difficulty did he manage to free himself from the cockpit and get past the engine. He landed in the Miiritz and swam to the bank. The cause of the defect was heavy vibrations emitted by the ramjet which affected the fuselage. The aircraft was a write-off.
On 28 November Kensche and Leutnant Walter Starbati flew an Re 2 twice at Larz. Starbati had previously been detached to the Zeppelin Luftschiffbau as a test pilot, and at Rechlin he appears to have received the order to test the Reichenberg personally. On 16 January 1945 Starbati flew the series-produced Re 3 (Works No. 10). After reaching speeds between 620 and 650 km/hr at 2,600 metres altitude (385-404 mph at 8,500 ft) he detected slight reverberations in the hull although otherwise the flight attitude was no different from the Re 2. On landing, the ramjet nozzle was found to be damaged which probably accounted for the shuddering in flight. Another long circuit in an Re 3 followed on 17 February, the aircraft picking up speed at 2,000 metres. In the 17- minute flight Leutnant Starbati reached a speed of540 km/hr, repeated in a 16-minute flight the following day.
On 4,22 and 25 February Starbati also flew the Re 4 V-10, the planned operational version of the piloted V-l. After a brief period in the air the fuel system began to leak, making Starbati dizzy. He broke off the flight and ground staff found that he had lost 335 litres of the original 600 litres of fuel since he took off
At this stage the Reichenberg was useless for operations because of instability in flight and needed constant corrections to maintain course but the flight trials at Larz continued.
At the beginning of 1945 the Rechlin-Larz test centre began to consider suitable variants for pin-point attacks by suicide pilots and in the training versions. Leutnant Starbati played a major role. However, he met his fate in a short wingspan Re 3 on 5 March 1945. After reaching a speed between 400 and 500 km/hr at 2,800 metres, as he turned to port both wings detached one after the other. Under ramjet propulsion the fuselage entered a steep dive. Starbati could not open the cockpit hood and died when the machine hit the Nebelsee near Sewekow. After Unteroffizier Schenk also lost his life in a Reichenberg, the Chief-TLR noted in the War Diary on 15 March that, at the suggestion of the Rechlin test centre, OKL and the Kommodore of KG 200 had decided to terminate the project after the most recent fatal accident. Most
Reichenberg aircraft were then put into store at the Neu-Tramm Luftwaffe arsenal since there was no further use for them. On 23 April Major Fritz Hahn surrendered all 700 V-ls and the last 54 secret suicide machines to US forces which had occupied the Muna. (Last Days of the Luftwaffe, admin)
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV on display at Farnborough, England, Nov 1945.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584067)
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted flying bomb at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario. This piloted version of the "Buzz Bomb" was brought to Canada in 1945 by Captain Farley Mowat's Intelligence Collection Team, shown here on display on Air Force Day, 16 June 1947. This aircraft has recently been put on display in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584520)
Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV Air Force Day, RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario, 9 June 1951.
Canada. Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted flying bomb in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario. This is the same R4 as the one shown at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario in 1949.
(CNE & Exhibition Place Archives, Alexandra Photo Studio Collection Photos (MG5-28-4)
V2 rocket on display at the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario, 1950. This rocket was recovered from Europe in 1945 by Captain Farlehy Mowat and his DHH Intelligence Collection Team, examined at Camp Valcartier, and shown here at the CNE. It is believed to be buried somewhere on the grounds of former RCAF Station Clinton, Ontario, ca 1960 (TBC).
When hostilities ceased, Allied Armies had advanced beyond what was to be the eventual boundary between the British, American and Russian zones. There were huge underground factories at Nordhausen which had been producing V1 and V2 weapons as well as jet engines. 128 V2s, (plus A-4 rocket component parts) were evacuated from Nordhausen before the site was handed over to the Russian forces.
In April 1945 a special agreement was made between the British Army and the RAF for the disposal of V1 flying bombs and V2 rockets under which the RAF was responsible for technical intelligence requirements and the Army for any surplus. Flak material was disposed of separately.
France received 417 aircraft through a cooperative agreement with the UK and USA. These included 88 Arado Ar 96B (including 28 cannibalised hulks) one Arado Ar 396 154 Bücker Bü 181 (including 19 cannibalised hulks) 64 Fieseler Fi 156 Storch 39 Siebel Si 204 36 Junkers Ju 52 (including 9 floatplanes) 17 Messerschmitt Bf 108 three Junkers Ju 88G6 seven Heinkel He 162 four Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet two Messerschmitt Me 262 and two Arado Ar 234. France also received 2,772 aircraft engines (spare), 3,071 aircraft cannon and machine-guns, more than two million rounds of various ammunition and 3,000 tons of other material.
Holland received a few transport and communications aircraft including a Fieseler Fi 156 and a Siebel Si 204, as well a significant amount of GAF equipment. Belgium received five Junkers Ju 52 aircraft and a quantity of spare parts. Denmark received three Junkers Ju 52 and two Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor aircraft which were placed in service with the Danish Airlines Corporation. Norway was allotted 23 transport and communications aircraft. Czechoslovakia was allotted three Junkers Ju 52 transports early in 1946.
When hostilities ceased, Allied Armies had advanced beyond what was to be the eventual boundary between the British, American and Russian zones. There were huge underground factories at Nordhausen which had been producing V1 and V2 weapons as well as jet engines. 128 V2s, (plus A-4 rocket component parts) were evacuated from Nordhausen before the site was handed over to the Russian forces. 
Captured V2 rocket set up at Altenwalde, Germany, Oct 1945.
V2 rocket on display in the National Museum of the USAF.
Some of the V2 rockets were subsequently used in Operation Backfire. (Appendix 4 lists 1,368 V1s found in the British Zone of Germany and 2,271 other V weapons, including 2,271 in the British Zone of Germany, 96 in Denmark and 635 in Norway, for a total of 3,002). The two Dornier Do 335s flown out by the RAF team from Farnborough were actually obtained at Neubiberg, after maintenance carried out by RAF mechanics. Representatives from RAF Farnborough accompanied three scientists to Munich to inspect the wind tunnel plants and installations located there.
V2 rocket on display in England post war.
The RAF teams visited all the American collection sites and dumps with much of it found at Hanau. In addition to the V2s, 100 jet engines and between 400 and 500 tons of material were transferred to Farnborough or to concentrations points in the British zone. In addition, very large quantities of documents were obtained and flown to the Air Ministry.
Junkers Ju 87 hulk designated as scrap by RAF personnel, Flensburg, May 1945.
A total of 4,810 aircraft and 291 gliders were found in the British Zone of Germany and in the liberated countries of Denmark, Norway, Holland and Belgium. These figures are in respect of serviceable, reparable or otherwise potentially flyable machines and are exclusive of wrecks and hulks which were classified as scrap. The ground battle had forced the majority of GAF aircraft to the Schleswig area or to Denmark and 579 were found in Norway.
In conjunction with Air Technical Intelligence field teams, representatives from the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough carried out a survey of all aircraft found and a total of 137 aircraft and 16 gliders of varying types was sent to the UK for research purposes and flying trials or for experimental research on special equipment fitted to them.
“The removal of the enormous quantities of components required for the assembly of the V2s found at Nordhausen posed considerable logistical difficulties. On 5 June 1945, an officer of the Headquarters Armament Staff (Disarmament) left Brussels to take charge of the operation, calling en route at HQ 2 group to brief 6203 and 6212 Bomb Disposal Flights which were to be employed on the task. It was found on arrival at Nordhausen that the removal of the V2s and component parts was actually to be a combined operation by an Army detachment and that of Air Disarmament, and a distribution of duties was rapidly decided whereby the Army rail-roaded certain stores and the RAF took charge of the more difficult road transportation.”
“The complexity of this novel task became evident as soon as work began. There were no complete V2s anywhere in the factory but there was an incredible agglomeration of hundreds of different components from 1000-gallon fuel tanks and 30-foot sections of fuselage down to electrical plugs, leads, nuts and bolts. There were 20 different shapes and sizes of aluminum pipes, many looking exactly alike at first sight, and these were not neatly segregated and docketed but could be found anywhere along the four miles of twin main tunnels or in any of the 39 communicating galleries (each about 200 yards long) of the plant. There are probably not half a dozen technicians in England who could list every single component which goes to make the enormously complicated V2 and certainly there were no such British or Allied technicians available to the RAF force on the spot. It was obvious that the removal of hundreds of tons of components would useless if specimens of one or more vital components were missed, and the first thing to be done, therefore, was to ensure the correct identification of every single component and then to ensure that quantities up to 128 of each (subsequently raised to 150) were collected, segregated and transported to a place of safety.”
“Fortunately, it was possible to simplify this problem by using two German technicians who between them assembled in one of the galleries a complete layout of all the components which go to make a V2. These components were then numbered to avoid confusion, and the search for further components began. At the beginning of the operation components were sent by road to the railway sidings at Kassel for subsequent onward transmission to Cuxhaven, but this rail-loading point was later changed to Gottingen since the daily journeys (120 km each way), coupled with loading and off-loading operations, were difficult to maintain. Gottingen offered an easier journey (better roads and a saving of 70 km on the round trip) coupled with adequate guard and rail facilities. In all, 137 fuel tanks were transported and these, despite the fact that they could be lifted by two men, could only be loaded one to a three-ton lorry, two to a 10-ton lorry or three to a low-loader.”
Between 7 and 18 June 1945 the following components were transported from the assembly plant to either Kassel or Gottingen: 5 complete V2s (found 20 km from Nordhausen) 137 fuel tanks 205 half fuselages (each 30 feet long) two mobile launching platforms one trailer compressor ten lorry loads of pipes and other metallic parts and 20 lorry loads of mixed electrical equipment.
Other activities carried out by the Air Disarmament task force at the same time included assisting the Army loading their trains removing three tons of secret electrical equipment found in a private house at Bleicherode some 15 km from Nordhausen discovering and removing five complete V2s from a warehouse at Kleinbodungen (20 km from Nordhausen) searching a train of 18 damaged V2s in a railway siding at Jerxheim (88 km from Nordhausen) for vital components, such as gyroscopes where were in short supply and removing launching accessories (including special 30-foot pole supports) from Obegebran, 20 km from Nordhausen.
One of the principle tasks of the British Engineer Branch personnel attached to the Disarmament organization was the repair and servicing of all enemy aircraft allocated to the UK, Dominions and Allies, as well as the destruction of unwanted aircraft, engines and equipment. As no portable publication existed which contained comprehensive details of German aircraft and aero engines, information was collected to produce a loose-leaf handbook entitled “German Air Force Airframes and Aero Engines” for use in the field.
At the time of the capitulation the majority of the flyable aircraft of the Luftwaffe had been withdrawn and concentrated at airfields north of Hamburg, in Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. HQ 83 Group controlled the Disarmament Wings in these areas. Air Ministry representatives selected all Category One aircraft which were required for transfer to the UK for research purposes at Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) Farnborough. These aircraft were serviced by the GAF under the close supervision of RAF Engineer personnel at Wings or Squadrons, some were flown directly to the UK and others were flown to Schleswig Land airfield where they were re-serviced by the RAF mechanics of 409 R and SU, which had been loaned to the Disarmament organization, before they were flown to England. Pilots for these aircraft were provided by COEF Farnborough, which had a detachment at Schleswig Land airfield. 
1,146 GAF aircraft were located at various airfields in Denmark. 37 were selected as Category One for research purposes and 252 were transferred to Germany for various transport and communications tasks, and most of the rest were destroyed. A combined total of 4,810 aircraft were discovered in the British zones of Germany, Denmark, Norway and Belgium (none were found in Holland). Overall, a total of 4,106 GAF aircraft were destroyed in Germany and in the liberated countries of Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with 137 preserved as Category One and 73 others sent to the UK, 16 sent to the USA and 478 sent to BAFO or to other Allies. 
A total of 12,880 spare aero-engines and 287 jet units were discovered, the majority of which were suitable for only Bomber and Fighter types. 2,772 were sent to the French (Junkers Ju 52 elements being the most required), the remainder were destroyed.
Arado Ar 234B, (Wk. Nr. 140311), USA 40, FE-1011, Wright Field, Oct 1945.
Arado Ar 234B-1, (Wk. Nr. 140489), Watson’s Whizzers 202, USA 5, USN (Bu No. 121445), Jane I. This aircraft was scrapped at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) Patuxent River, Maryland.
After the war ended, a race began to collect advanced technology. Ar 234s were scattered all over Western Europe, and the British obtained about a dozen of them. The Soviets apparently only recovered one. For whatever reasons, the Ar 234 had been primarily used in the west.
The Ar 234C was equipped with four BMW 003A engines to free up Junkers Jumo 004s from use by the Me 262. The utilization of four engines improved overall thrust, especially in take-off and climb-to-altitude performance. 15 prototypes of the AR 234C were completed before the end of the conflict. Although Hauptmann Dieter Lukesch was preparing to form an operational test squadron, the Ar 234C was not developed in time to participate in actual combat operations.
Four Ar 234s along with an assortment of other advanced Luftwaffe aircraft and shipped to the USA on the “jeep” carrier HMS Reaper. Three were given to the US Army Air Force and one to the US Navy, though the Navy’s aircraft turned out to be in permanently unflyable condition. One of the three obtained by the USAAF, (Wk. Nr. 140312), was put through intensive tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and ultimately handed on to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air & Space Museum, where it is now prominently on display.
Arado Ar 234B-2, (Wk. Nr. 140312), USA 50, FE-1010, T2-1010, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. This Ar 234 B-2 was F1+DR, a detail not known when it was restored as F1+GS. This aircraft and three others were collected by the famous “Watson’s Whizzers” of the USAAF to be shipped back to the United States for flight testing. Two aircraft were given freely but a further two had been traded to Watson by Eric “Winkle” Brown (test pilot and CO of the Enemy Aircraft Flight at the RAE) in exchange for an interview with Hermann Göring who was then being held by the Americans.
The aircraft was flown from Sola to Cherbourg, France on 24 June 1945 where it joined 34 other advanced German aircraft shipped back to the USA aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper. Reaper departed from Cherbourg on 20 July, arriving at Newark, New Jersey eight days later. Upon arrival two of the Ar 234s were reassembled (including 140312) and flown by USAAF pilots to Freeman Field, Seymour, Indiana Indiana for testing and evaluation. 140312 was assigned the foreign equipment number FE-1010. The fate of the second Ar 234 flown to Freeman Field remains a mystery. One of the remaining two was reassembled by the United States Navy at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, for testing, but was found to be in unflyable condition and was scrapped.
After receiving new engines, radio and oxygen equipment, 140312 was transferred to Wright Field near Dayton, Ohio and delivered to the Accelerated Service Test Maintenance Squadron (ASTMS) of the Flight Test Division in July 1946. Flight testing was completed on 16 October 1946 though the aircraft remained at Wright Field until 1947. It was then transferred to Orchard Place Airport in Park Ridge, Illinois, and remained there until 1 May 1949 when it, and several other aircraft stored at the airport were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. During the early 1950s the Ar 234 was moved to the Smithsonian’s Paul Garber Restoration Facility at Suitland, Maryland for storage and eventual restoration.
The Smithsonian began restoration of 140312 in 1984 and completed it in February 1989. All paint had been stripped from the aircraft before the Smithsonian received it, so the aircraft was painted with the markings of an aircraft of 8./KG 76, the first operational unit to fly the “Blitz”. The restored aircraft was first displayed at the Smithsonian’s main museum building in downtown Washington D.C. in 1993 as part of a display titled “Wonder Weapon? The Arado Ar 234”. In 2005 it became one of the first aircraft moved to the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Dulles International Airport. Today, (Wk. Nr. 140312) is displayed next to the last surviving Dornier Do 335, an aircraft that had accompanied it on its voyage across the Atlantic Ocean aboard the Reaper over 60 years earlier.
This aircraft is displayed with a pair of Hellmuth Walter designed, liquid-fueled RATO units mounted under its wings. These RATO units may be the only surviving examples to be mounted on an aircraft.
More than 137 Category One aircraft and gliders were flown or transported to England including two Arado Ar 96B (plus 88 to France), two Arado Ar 196, one Arado Ar 232, eight Arado Ar 234 (plus two to the USAAF, two to France and one other), two Blohm & Voss BV 138 seaplanes, one Blohm und Voss Bv 155B, two Bücker Bü 181 (plus 154 to France), one Blohm und Voss Bv 222C-012, three Dornier Do 24 (plus two to BAFO), three Dornier Do 217, (two Dornier Do 335 Pfiel are not on this list as they were acquired from the USAAF), three Fieseler Fi 156 Storch (plus 82 to France), one Fieseler Fi 256, one Focke-Wulf Fw 58, four Focke-Wulf 190 (plus six to the USAAF), one Focke-Wulf Ta 152, one Focke-Wulf Fw 189, two Focke-Wulf Fw 200, eleven Heinkel He 162 (plus two to the USAAF, two to France and one other), five Heinkel He 219 Uhu (plus three to the USAAF), (plus one Junkers Ju 34 to Norway), three Junkers Ju 52 (plus 63 others to civil aviation, 3 to RAE, and 69 to other countries), (plus one Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, other), thirteen Junkers Ju 88 (plus one to the USAAF and three to France), one Junkers Ju 88/Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Mistel S3B composite, two Junkers Ju 290, four Junkers Ju 352, one Junkers Ju 388, three Messerschmitt Bf 108 (plus 21 to France, (plus two Messerschmitt Bf 109, other), six Messerschmitt Bf 110 (plus one other), twenty-five Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet (plus four to France), four Junkers Ju 188, seven Messerschmitt Me 262 (plus two to the USAF, two to France and one other), three Messerschmitt Me 410, one Siebel Si 104, and ten Siebel Si 204, for total of (more than) 137 aircraft.  In addition 215 gliders were found in Germany and 76 in Norway for a total of 291, of which 269 were put into service in Germany, 16 went to the UK as Category One and 6 others.
 An Account of the Part Played by the Royal Air Force in Dissolving the Luftwaffe, Volume II, Feb 1944 – Dec 1946, Compiled from Official Records and Papers by Order of Air Marshall Sir Philip Wigglesworth, KBE, CB, DSC, Air Officer Commanding in Chief BAFO and Chief of the Air Division, July 1947, Air Headquarters British Air Forces of Occupation, pp. 3-4.
 Dissolving the Luftwaffe, Volume II, Feb 1944 – Dec 1946, p. 7.
Junkers Ju 88 vol. II
The first Ju 88 was lost on October 9. On that day 21 Junkers along with a powerful force of 127 He 111s were out in search of the British fleet. Weather conditions were unfavorable but did not prevent the pilots of I./KG 30 from claiming ten (!) bomb hits on a few cruisers none was hit in fact, whereas one 3./KG 30 machine was lost to anti-aircraft fire. Despite the damage, pilot Oblt. Konrad Kahl, managed to fly it to within sight of the German coast and the two flyers bailed out to safety.
A week later, on October 16, fifteen I./KG 30 aircraft were deployed against the battlecruiser Hood, reportedly steaming to Rosyth. When the German formation reached the base at the Firth of Forth, Hptm. Pohle spotted the Hood, already in dry dock. Prior to the sortie, he had been very clearly instructed not to attack facilities that might potentially cause civilian casualties. The Hood had to be left alone.
Instead, bombs were dropped on ships anchored in the harbor: the light cruisers Edinburgh and Southampton, and the destroyer Mohawk. The latter was hit by Lt. Horst von Riesen, with eight British sailors killed and seventeen wounded. The diving Ju 88s were greeted with ground and ship fire. Spitfires of No. 602 and 603 Sqns put in an appearance shortly afterwards, inflicting damage to von Riesen’s aircraft, although the Junkers managed to reach the German coast with only one engine running and was able to carry out a successful forced landing. Despite severe damage, the crew escaped unhurt.
Several bombs fell near enough the cruiser Edinburgh for shrapnel fragments to cause damage. As Hptm. Pohle was diving in, his cockpit canopy was swept off in the slipstream but he nevertheless succeeded in dropping a 500kg bomb on the Southampton. Since the warship was not as heavily armored as a battleship, the bomb fell through her three decks, passing right through her hull without exploding! Ju 88 (4D+AK) came under attack from No. 602 Sqn Spitfires. His port engine on fire, Pohle directed the machine away over the sea, F/L George Pinkerton and F/L Archie McKellar giving chase. His aircraft riddled by fire, three of Pohle’s crew were killed and his starboard engine shot out. The only thing he could do was ditch. A British trawler rescued the wounded Pohle, who was then taken prisoner. The same fate befell Oblt. Siegfried Storp’s 1./KG 30 crew. The Royal Navy had sixteen men killed and 44 wounded.
The new Kommandeur of I./KG 30 was Hptm. Fritz Doench. The following day, he led four Ju 88s on a sortie against the Scapa Flow naval base. The Junkers were accompanied by thirteen He 111s. The raid inflicted heavy damage on the training ship Iron Duke (ex-battleship). Anti-aircraft fire accounted for one of the Ju 88s, which crashed and burned on the island of Hoy.
The experience gained by I./KG 30 showed clearly that the Ju 88 was capable of inflicting more damage as a dive-bomber than He 111s in level raids. An average 50 per cent accuracy was an extraordinary result compared to other bombers. In addition the Ju 88 was appreciated by crews for the stability of its wide-track landing gear in ground maneuvers, ability to take much damage, its long single-engine flight endurance and long range on combat sorties. Housing the crew together was also an excellent innovation since it greatly facilitated cooperation in flight.
In November, Lehrgruppe 88 was formed at Greifswald under Maj. Friedrich-Karl Knust. This entailed the formation on December 1 of II./KG 30, and of III./KG 30 on January 1, 1940. In addition, the pilots of LG 1, KG 4 and KG 51 began training on the new aircraft. However only a reduced number of crews had an opportunity to become acquainted with the Ju 88, given that only 69 Ju 88A-1s had been built by the end of 1939.
Organization of the Luftwaffe
Since the Luftwaffe was an elite unit, it originally battled in pairs. Two planes always flew together in a formation, called Rotten. A pair of Rotten (4 planes) formed a Schwärm. A bomber Schwärm consisted of 3 planes flying in a V formation, called Kette (chain). 3 Schwärme were under the direct command of the Staffelkapitän. A Gruppe usually consisted of 3 Staffeln, making the total strength of the unit up to 60 to 70 aircraft. A Gruppe was the smallest self-contained unit of the Luftwaffe.
A total of 4 Gruppe together formed the Geschwader. Each Geschwader was controlled by the Geschwaderkommodore. The Geschwaderkommodore was usually of Oberst rank or higher. The Fliegerkorps consisted of four Geschwader. Two Fliegerkorps together formed a Luftflotte. It consisted of 1,215 planes, 850 light and agile single-engine planes, and 350 heavy twin-engine jet planes. Each Luftflotte or air fleet had a separate operational base and mission.
Junkers Ju 88 G-7 [ edit | edit source ]
|Junkers Ju-88 G-7|
|General Historical Information|
|Place of origin||Germany|
|General Ingame Information|
4x 20mm MG213
Up firing (70°):2x 20mm MG213
|Special abilities||FuG 218/220 Neptun Radar|
|Seatق||2x 13mm MG 131|
All previous night fighter versions of the Ju 88 used a modified A-series fuselage. The G-series fuselage was purpose-built for the special needs of a night fighter, with the A-series' Bola ventral under-nose defensive gun position omitted for lower aerodynamic drag and less weight. G-1 aircraft were fitted with the enlarged squared-off vertical fin/rudder tail unit of the Ju 188, more powerful armament and 1,700 PS BMW 801 G-2 radial engines. Electronic equipment consisted of the then-standard FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 90 MHz VHF radar using eight-dipole Hirschgeweih antennas, plus sometimes additional FuG 350 Naxos with its antenna in a teardrop-shaped fairing above the canopy, or FuG 227 Flensburg radar detection homing devices. One of these was flown by mistake to RAF Woodbridge in July 1944, giving the Royal Air Force its first chance to check out the VHF-band Lichtenstein SN-2 radar and Flensburg radar detector gear.
G-6 versions were equipped with 1,750 PS Jumo 213A inline-V12 engines, enlarged fuel tanks and often one or two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons in a Schräge Musik("Jazz Music", i.e. slanted) installation. These guns were pointed obliquely upwards and forwards from the upper fuselage - usually at an angle of 70°.
Some of the final G-series models received updates to the engine, a high-altitude Jumo 213E or to the radar, FuG 218/220 Neptun V/R or the even newer FuG 240 Berlin N-1 cavity magnetron based, 3 GHz-band (centimetric) radar. Only about 15 of those were completed before V-E Day and were designated as the Ju 88 G-7.
File:Junkers Ju 88 A-4.svg
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
|current||13:09, 9 September 2013||1,314 × 1,838 (520 KB)||Kaboldy (talk | contribs)||White background|
|07:38, 22 February 2012||1,384 × 1,849 (519 KB)||Kaboldy (talk | contribs)|
You cannot overwrite this file.
Junkers Ju 88H - History
In November 1944, a requirement was issued for a very simple, rapidly produced small fighter aircraft by the RLM. This Miniaturjäger (Miniature Fighter) program was to use the simplest and cheapest power plant available, and to have the minimum of strategic materials and practically no electrical equipment. The motive power chosen was to be the Argus As 014 pulse jet, the same power used for the Fi 103 Buzz Bomb (V1), and the Miniaturjäger was to takeoff and land conventionally. The plan was to be able to build a large numbers of these aircraft, and thus simply overwhelm the enemy bomber formations with their numbers. Only three firms participated in this design competition, Heinkel (with a pulse jet powered He 162 airframe), Blohm & Voss (BV P.213 ) and Junkers. Junkers had been working on the EF126 since early 1944 and it fit the Miniaturjäger requirements issued later that year. It was calculated that the cost of a completed Ju EF126 aircraft would be 30,000 Reich marks, compared to 74,000 for a completed Heinkel He 162 jet fighter or 150,000 Reich marks for a Messerschmitt Me 262.
The Junkers Ju EF126 fuselage was of a tapering circular cross-section, and could be constructed of metal or wood depending on the materials at hand. There were two basic designs: a shoulder-mounted wing with twin fins on the ends of the tail planes and a midfuselage-mounted wing with a more standard tail configuration. A single Argus As 109-044 pulse jet engine that developed 500 kg (1102 lbs) of thrust was mounted on the top of the fuselage in both versions. Since a pulse jet must be brought up to its operating speed, takeoff was achieved by the use of two detachable solid-fuel rockets with 1200 kg (2640 lbs) thrust. Originally, a tricycle landing gear system was envisioned, but to save weight and design time takeoff was to be on a droppable takeoff dolly and landing was to take place on a retractable landing skid. A small propeller on the fuselage nose powered the generator until the aircraft was brought up to speed. The pilot sat under a bubble canopy located in the fuselage nose that afforded good all around vision. Armament consisted of two MG 151/20 20mm forward firing fixed cannon (with 180 rounds each) mounted on the fuselage sides. In addition, the EF126 could also carry 24 R4M unguided rockets beneath the wings. Since the Argus pulse jet engine's performance worsened with altitude, the EF126 was also to be used in the ground attack role, where an auxiliary load of 400 kg (880 lbs) could be carried beneath the wings.
Although a wooden mockup and several windtunnel models were completed at Dessau, the worsening was situation for Germany curtailed the EF126 development and all work was ceased in March 1945. With the end of the war, US and USSR troops arrived at the Junkers plant in Dessau and a complete lineup of Junkers aircraft, including the EF126, was arranged by Junkers design engineer Dipl-Ing. Ernst Ziedel. After the US pulled out at the end of June 1945, the Soviets wanted to get the production of the highly coveted jet aircraft going as soon as possible. Dipl.-Ing. Baade, one of the leading designers of Junkers, presented the Soviet military commission with the manufacturing documents for the Junkers EF126 in September 1945. It was decided to start immediately on the further development of this aircraft, with five prototypes being ordered. The first prototype was to be ready for flight by February 1946, the second was to be built in parallel and to be used as a static test airframe and the third through fifth aircraft were to be completed by April 1946. Due to manufacturing problems with individual components, the V1 - V2 airframes were not ready until May. Because the Argus As 044 pulse jet was not ready at the same time, it was decided to test the first prototype (EF126 V1) as an unpowered glider.
The first flight took place with Flugkapitän Matthias at the controls of the EF126 V1 and was towed into the air by a captured Junkers Ju 88G-6. The second flight took place on May 21, 1946, but the aircraft crashed and Flugkapitän Matthias was killed. Apparently, the final approach was begun too early, and Flugkapitän Matthias tried to reach the airfield boundary by bringing the nose down to pick up speed. Because the landing speed was too high the aircraft hit the ground violently, bounced 10 meters (33 feet) back into the air, and then overturned several times. The accident investigation revealed, besides pilot error, that the wing profile could also be improved. This was to be taken into account with the building of the EF126 V4.
In the meantime, the Junkers test pilot had completed satisfactory unpowered test flights with the 126 V3 in June 1946. The completed V3 - V5 aircraft were accepted by a Soviet commission in August 1946 in Dessau, Germany. A decision was made that all powered flights were to be made within the Soviet Union, so all aircraft and personnel were moved to Ramenskoje in September 1946.
Junkers had been developing its own pulse jet engines, and it was now decided to flight test their Jumo 226 pulse jet (500 kg/1100 lbs thrust) on a modified captured Junkers Ju 88G-6. The pulse jet was mounted outside the fuselage on the port side behind the wings and a special Seppler Bemag type fuel pump was driven by a small propeller on the nose. The first twelve Jumo 226 pulse jets had been completed in Germany end of August 1946 and had been sent to Ramenskoje for testing. There they were tested under the management of test engineer Heinrich Hartmann together with the aircraft crew Heinrich Schreiber, Paul Heerling and two other engineers. During the first test flight on December 31, 1946 a very disagreeable low frequency resonance effect was observed, which eventually led to damage of the fuselage structure of the Ju 88 test bed. Some nasty incidents also occurred during later test flights. On Feb. 19, 1947, the fuel line for the Jumo 226, inside the Ju 88 fuselage, broke as a result of excessive vibration. The resulting fuel vapors made an immediate emergency landing at Ramenskoje necessary. After about 50 test flights, a final high altitude test on May 30, 1947 was to confirm the operational capability of the pulse jet at an altitude of 5,000 m (16,404 ft). After a spectacular takeoff, with the help of the Jumo 226, the right-hand Ju 88G-6 engine caught fire. The flight ended with a crash landing that put the aircraft out of action until the autumn of 1947.
In the meantime, the first flight of a Ju EF126 under its own power took place. On March 16, 1947, the EF126 V5 flew for 30 minutes in free flight with the pulse jet running and landed without mishap at Ramenskoje. The EF126 V4 was tested from the autumn of 1947 onwards, towed by the rebuilt Ju 88G-6. During these tests, the V4 was released each time shortly before the landing, in order to thoroughly test landing with the skid system. All flights of the EF126 were achieved by being towed into the air by the Ju 88G-6 due to the lack of the planned solid fuel rocket engines. In this manner a total of twelve test flights with and without power were carried out, with the total flight time being logged came to 3 hours 15 minutes. At the end of 1947 the aircraft were parked in the open air which resulted in significant damage to the aircraft caused by the extreme weather conditions.
Meanwhile, the German test personnel were taken off the EF126 project in October 1947. Bringing the remaining EF126s back into use in 1948 turned out to be extremely complicated because of the weather damage. The aircraft were moved to the Tjoplyj Stan airfield southeast of Moscow, however no flight test took place here because of the lack of suitable tow aircraft. On the official side, the interest in a small, cheaply produced fighter aircraft had died, since in the meantime the Soviet Union itself had significantly further advanced developments which were already under way. Thus the history of the EF126 ended without any fanfare when all work on the project was stopped in the middle of 1948.
|Span||Length *||Height||Max Fuselage Width||Wing Area|
|6.65 m |
|8.46 m |
|1.9 m |
|0.85 m |
|8.9 m² |
|Empty Weight||Pilot ||Ammunition ||Fuel ||Aux Load ||Max Loaded Weight||Wing Loading|
|1100 kg |
|100 kg |
|100 kg |
|1100 kg |
|400 kg |
|2800 kg |
|314 kg/m² |
|Max. Speed *||Rate of Climb||Range **||Endurance|
|at sea level |
|at sea level |
|300 km at max speed |
350 km at 60% power
|23 min at max speed |
45 min at 60% power
|A & V||1/72||Resin, White Metal, Photoetch & Decals||midfuselage-mounted wing version |
|Merlin||1/72||Injected, White Metal & Decals||includes landing gear! |
Thanks to Christian Julius for his translation help
Translated from a German language article in Flugzeug Classic by Helmut Walther.
The only known existing photo of the Junkers Ju EF126, taken postwar in the USSR.
Note the pitot tube on the left wing and the small wingtip skids
Photo from Helmut Walther
Junkers Ju EF126 windtunnel models
Amazing facts about the Junkers Ju-87 Stuka -it had a top speed of a mere 255mph
The Stuka got its nickname from the German word Sturzkampfflugzeug or dive-bomber, the official designation was Junkers Ju-87. The first plane prototype Stuka flew in 1936 and the plane was first used in combat in the Spanish Civil War.
More than 6,000 Stuka bombers were built in five variants designated A thru G, between 1936 and Aug 1944. The Ju 87 Stuka aircraft’s fixed undercarriages provided sturdy platforms for takeoffs and landings on improvised airfields in the field, but at the cost of airspeed due to drag.
On 15 August 1939 during a mass-formation dive-bombing demonstration for high-ranking commanders of the Luftwaffe, disaster struck. The planes dived through a cloud bank and expected to release their practice bombs and then pull out of the dive . They were unaware that on that particular day the cloud ceiling was too low and unexpected ground mist formed, leaving them with no time to pull out of the dive. Thirteen Ju 87s, and 26 crew members were lost when they crashed into the ground almost simultaneously
By the outbreak of World War II, the Luftwaffe had 366 Ju 87 ready for service, 3 of them carried out the first bombing mission of the war, attacking 11 minutes before the official German declaration of hostilities. The aim of this mission was to destroy the Polish demolition charges wired to the bridges over the Vistula River at Dirscha. However, the mission failed, and the Poles destroyed the bridge before the Germans could reach it.
More than 6,000 Stuka bombers were built in five variants designated A thru G, between 1936 and Aug 1944.
In Norway the Stukas were given the role of ground attack and anti-shipping missions, proving to be the most effective weapon of the Luftwaffe for carrying out the latter task.
In the Battle of France, the Stuka proved its worth in pin-point accurate bombing, but it also showed for the first time that they were vulnerable. For example, on 12 May, near Sedan, six French Curtiss H-75s fighters attacked a formation of Ju 87s, shooting down 11 out of 12 unescorted Ju 87s without loss.
It was a very advanced plane in its day and very effective
In the Battle of Britain, the Stuka with a top speed of a mere 255mph was no match for the fast and agile Spitfire or Hurricane and suffered so many losses that it was withdrawn, it never saw combat again in Western Europe.
The Stuka was relocated to the Mediterranean and severely damaged the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious. The Ju 87s delivered six and three damaging near-misses, but the ship’s engines were untouched, and she made for the besieged harbour of Malta.
At the invasion of the USSR, the Stuka again showed its worth, it took a huge toll on Soviet ground forces, helping to break up counterattacks of Soviet armour, eliminating strongpoints and disrupting the enemy supply lines.
The Stuka was used in all battles of the Eastern Front, mostly in the anti-tank variant (Ju-87G), the final operational version of the Stuka. The reverse in German military fortunes after 1943 and the appearance of huge numbers of well-armored Soviet tanks caused Junkers to adapt the existing design to combat this new threat.
The anti-tank Stuka carried two 37 mm cannons in underwing gun pods
The anti-tank Stuka carried two 37 mm cannons in underwing gun pods, each loaded with two six-round magazines of armor-piercing tungsten carbide-cored ammunition.
Stuka Ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most highly decorated German serviceman of the war. Rudel flew 2,530 combat missions claiming a total of 2,000 targets destroyed including 800 vehicles, 519 tanks, 150 artillery pieces, 70 landing craft, nine aircraft, four armored trains, several bridges, a destroyer, two cruisers, and the Soviet battleship Marat.
In May 1944 production was slowed and stopped altogether in December 1944. Only two Stukas remain intact, one at the Chicago Museum of Science and one at the Royal Air Force Museum in London.
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
|current||23:59, 20 December 2014||800 × 555 (42 KB)||Russavia (talk | contribs)||Cropped < 1 % horizontally and 3 % vertically using CropTool with lossless mode.|
|13:54, 9 December 2008||/>||800 × 575 (44 KB)||BArchBot (talk | contribs)||== <|
You cannot overwrite this file.