History Podcasts

University of San Diego

University of San Diego


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The University of San Diego is a nationally ranked Roman Catholic institution located on a 180-acre site in San Diego, California.Overlooking Mission Bay and the Pacific Ocean, the university campus is a community treasure, with 16th-century Spanish Renaissance-inspired buildings and breathtakingly beautiful landscapes.This private, co-educational institution is noted for its commitment to teaching, the liberal arts, formation of values, and community service.USD is fully accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. It offers more than 60 degrees at the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral levels. The school also adds depth to education by inspiring students to grow spiritually, morally, and socially.The University of San Diego operates six schools and colleges, namely - the School of Business Administration, School of Education, School of Law, School of Nursing and Health Science, College of Arts and Sciences, and the Joan B. Current enrollment includes more than 7,000 undergraduate, graduate and law students with 706 faculty members.The academy was founded in 1952 as the San Diego College for Women with 50 students. Buddy, bishop of the Diocese of San Diego, and Mother Rosalie Hill, superior vicar of the Society of the Sacred Heart.They chartered the School from resources drawn from their respective organizations on a stretch of land called "Alcala Park" - named for San Diego de Alcala, a Franciscan lay brother from the Spanish town of Alcala de Henares, near Madrid.A separate school for men, known then as San Diego University, was chartered on the same campus in the spring of 1954. At the beginning, it had temporary quarters as professors welcomed 39 students in the College for Men and 60 students in the School of Law.Both schools co-existed on the Alcala Park site for nearly two decades. Thereafter, USD has grown quickly and dramatically increased its assets and academic programs.Today, the campus houses 33 major buildings, encompassing more than 2 million square feet, which house educational, administrative, residential, athletic, dining, and support services.The Immaculata Church at the University of San Diego, built by the Diocese of San Diego at the time of school’s founding, still serves USD and its surrounding neighbors.The Copley Library and the Pardee Legal Research Center houses more than 800,000 print volumes. The University Circuit Library Consortium also provides access to an additional two million volumes.From clubs and career organizations to environmental activism, the social possibilities are bountiful on campus. The sports teams, known as the “Toreros,” compete in the NCAA's Division I (I-AA for football) in the West Coast Conference.


History (HIST)

This course, offered by the School of Education, or SOLES, will discuss teaching methods, evaluate course content, instruct students in the use audio-visual materials and make use of oral presentations to simulate classroom lectures. Essential for those preparing to become teachers or continuing the pursuit of graduate degrees in history.

HIST 502 | PUBLIC HISTORY SEMINAR

Examines aspects of public history that include a variety of spheres such as the application and definition of public history theory and management of historical collections registration and cataloguing of historical collections philosophy and techniques of exhibiting historical artifacts historical editing — books and scholarly journals media or documentary productions writing corporate histories historical research in general and maintaining a website. Field trips to various local museums are included.

HIST 510 | TOPICS IN ANCIENT HISTORY

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

This seminar focuses on ancient Greek or Roman history, with an emphasis on power and politics, gender, art and architecture and/or economic and social change. Special topics may offer the chance to study the Trojan War, ancient Athens, Greek religion and culture, ancient Rome and the Mediterranean, the army, barbarians, Julius Caesar, Romanization and/or the rise of Christianity. Extensive use will be made of contemporary sources to obtain first-hand insights into the values and concerns of ancient men and women. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 520 | TOPICS: MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

This seminar focuses on Medieval European history, with an emphasis on power and politics, gender, art and architecture and/or economic and social change. Extensive use will be made of contemporary sources to obtain first-hand insights into the values and concerns of medieval men and women. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 530 | TOPICS:REN & EARLY MOD EUROPE

This seminar focuses on Europe, 1450-1700, with an emphasis on power and politics, gender, art and architecture and/or economic and social change. Special topics may offer the chance to study the politics of the Italian city states the writings of leading humanists, poets, philosophers and political theorists Renaissance and Baroque art and architecture and/or political events such as the English civil war. The class also may focus on groundbreaking research in the histories of women, sexuality, popular culture, peasant life and magic. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

This seminar will examine the wars fought in and around Vietnam since the 1940s, with particular attention focused on the period of direct American involvement. These events will be considered in relation to Vietnam’s history, American politics and society and to the nature of war itself. Finally, we will consider the legacy of the war and its meaning in American and Vietnamese memory today.

HIST 559 | TOPICS IN MODERN MIDDLE EAST

This seminar focuses on various topics in the history of the Modern Middle East. Topics may include the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire Arab and Jewish nationalisms the paths to independence or the Iranian revolution. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 560 | TOPICS IN LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

This seminar focuses on various topics in the history of Latin America, such as the role of religion and the Catholic Church 20th-century revolutions and social upheaval and the history of particular groups, including Amerindians, women and rural and urban workers. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 564 | HISTORY & MEMORY IN CONTEMPORARY AUSTRALIA

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

An in-depth look at special themes and issues in the history of Asia, including such topics as Women in East Asia, Imperialism in Asia and Asia’s relations with the United States. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 568 | ISSUES IN MODERN AFRICA

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

A critical study of issues confronting Africans in the 20th century. Alternating courses may include Problems in Africa since Independence and the South African Dilemma. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 570 | AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY

This class will introduce students to the field of U.S. environmental history. On the one hand, we will examine how nature (soil, natural disasters, disease, water, climate, etc.) influenced the course of American history. On the other, we will address the ways Americans have used technology to transform the non-human world, the implications these transformations have had on power relations within American societies and the cultural meanings that Americans have given to nature.

HIST 575 | TOPICS IN AMERICAN HISTORY

Units: 3 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

Topics may include the Progressive Era, World War I, Great Depression, New Deal, World War II, United States-Latin American Relations, or other topics in the political, economic, social and cultural history of the United States from 1865 to the present. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 576 | POLITICS AND MEMORY IN U.S. HISTORY

In this seminar we will explore the politics of American public commemoration. We will look at how dominant institutions (the National Park Service, history museums and tourist venues) have remembered (and forgotten) the American past. We will also explore vernacular historical expressions and the ways in which minority groups have fought to shape American public memory. The class will use San Diego as a laboratory.

HIST 580 | TOPICS IN THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN WEST

Units: 1-6 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

This class surveys the history of the American West. Topics include: pre-Columbian Indians, the competition between European empires over the American West American expansion and conquest the fur, mining, ranching and farming “frontiers” the railroad and populism WWII and the growth of the urban west the historical experience of workers, women and Mexican-, Asian-, Native- and African Americans environmental issues such as conservation, preservation, the dust bowl and water politics and representations of the West in popular culture. Students may repeat the seminar for credit when the topic changes.

HIST 583 | CHICANO/A HISTORY

This class explores the history of the Mexican and Mexican origin people in the United States. The class begins with the European settlement of the Americas and ends with the immigration of Mexicans to the United States in the 20th and 21st century.

HIST 589 | HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA

Covers California’s past from its earliest settlements to modern times. The course begins with California’s geographical setting, aboriginal culture and contact with the European world. A survey of Spanish backgrounds includes missions and missionaries, ranchos, pueblos and foreign visitors. Changes under the government of Mexico led to California’s conquest by the United States. During the second half, the class will address the Gold Rush problems of statehood constitutional developments land, labor and Indian policies transportation and immigration agriculture and industry California during wartime water projects political issues cultural accomplishments racial diversity and recent trends. Meets the requirements of California history standards for various teaching credentials.

Units: 0.5-6 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

May be taken as a three-unit class. In other instances, History 595 may be repeated when student is writing and researching the thesis. When not taken as a seminar, History 595 will receive an incomplete. The grade for History 595 will not be recorded until the thesis is completed and submitted.

See Department Advisors responsible for assignments of internships.


Contents

In the late 1890s, San Diego officials believed that a normal school should be established to help the town grow and increase certification of teachers. [1] The tuition and travel for out-of-town normal schools were large and San Diegans desired to have a closer school. [2] San Diego had to compete with Fresno, Los Angeles, and several other cities for a school, and its first attempt to establish one in 1895 was vetoed by California governor James Budd. [2] [3] On March 13, 1897 Governor Budd changed course and signed legislation appropriating $50,000 to allow for the establishment of a state normal school in San Diego, to be located in University Heights. [4] By 1905, total funds appropriated to the school totaled $333,300. [4]

The Board of Trustees for San Diego Normal School was established by Budd and first met on June 3, 1897. [2] They appointed Samuel T. Black, who had previously served as the California Superintendent for Public Instruction, as president of the new school by unanimous decision on October 1, 1898. [2] On January 21, 1898, the San Diego firm Hebbard and Gill was selected to design the new school building. The architect Irving Gill, who developed the building in a Beaux-Arts style, was responsible for the design. The ground was broken for construction on August 1, the cornerstone of the building was laid on December 10, and the building was dedicated on May 1, 1899. [5] [6] During the building's construction, the first classes were held at the Hill Block on the southwest corner of 6th and F street in downtown San Diego beginning on November 1, 1898. [5] [7] The classes moved to the Normal School in May 1899, even as construction continued. [5] 135 students (90% of whom were women), were enrolled by the end of the first year enrollment grew to 400 by 1910. [5]

In the summer of 1899, San Diego Normal School became the first California normal school to offer summer courses, and maintained this position until 1913. [8] On June 21, 1900, the first class was graduated: 23 women and three men. [8] Later that year, the east wing of the initial building was finished, adding 18 rooms. [8] In 1903, $61,000 was appropriated by the state for a west wing it included a gym, library, laboratories, lecture rooms, and a museum. [8] The west wing was completed in September 1904. [8] In 1906, the California legislature required that students have a high school diploma in order to be admitted to a normal school. [8] This was the same requirement as for entry into the University of California. [8]

In 1910, Samuel Black resigned, and was replaced by Edward L. Hardy, who had previously served as the principal of San Diego High School. [9] He increased the faculty size from 19 to 27 in 1912 to meet the demands of increased enrollment. [10] The annual salary for the president increased to $4,000 (from $3,400) in 1915 and salaries for the faculty and administration ranged from $600–2,500 (compared to the national average of $687 for all industries except for farm labor). [11] [12] Hardy argued for the pay increases, claiming increases would "give merited and much needed relief. [and] will be entirely justified by the increased good of the service." [11] More buildings were added after appropriations of funds in 1907 and total expenditures for the campus reached $312,000. [13] Even with the expansion, by 1910 space was limited, so the training school dropped the high school program, although it still taught the elementary and intermediate grades (7th and 8th grades). [13] In 1914, of the 136 new students for the school year, 17 were from California counties (excluding San Diego), while 26 were from other states. [14] This proportion would remain common throughout the school's history as the majority of its students were from the San Diego area.

World War I had a large impact on the school. A newfound sense of patriotism had the administration require students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance as an entrance requirement to the school. [15] The war also had an effect on enrollment as all of the male students gradually left the school to join the war efforts in 1916 there were 421 total students, 382 in 1917, 172 in 1918 (including only one male student), and in 1919, 147 students. [15] In addition to the students, some of the faculty members joined the military. Due to the decreased student enrollment, the remaining faculty had the opportunity to further their own training. [11] On campus, both students and faculty worked with the Red Cross, organized bond drives, and sent packages to troops overseas. [11]

During this period, Hardy pushed the notion of granting the school college status. In 1921, the California legislature made the school a four-year teacher's school, which placed it under the management of the State Department of Education. On July 28, 1921, the San Diego Normal School became San Diego State Teachers College (usually shortened to San Diego State College or SDS). [16] With this ranking, the college could now grant certificates and degrees. Prior to the school's conversion, it had graduated 1,500 teachers, educated many of the San Diego children at its training school, and helped to expand the economic and cultural development of the city. [16] [17] Also in 1921, the legislature moved San Diego Junior College, that was a part of San Diego High School, to the college campus due to crowding issues. [18] Administrators moved the junior college believing it would only overlap the same material taught at the teacher's school. [18] The junior college remained with the school until 1947, when it became independent. [19]

On June 30, 1923 the legislature allowed the college to begin granting Bachelor of Arts degrees, which included accountancy, agriculture, and industrial engineering. On July 1, 1927, the junior college courses became lower-division courses and on July 12, 1928 the State Board of Education granted the college the ability to offer credentials in secondary education with majors in English, history, chemistry, and the Romance languages. [20]

The Normal School was initially built for a maximum capacity of 600 students. Hardy proposed in 1922 building on a new campus at a 125-acre (51 ha) plot at Park Boulevard (near Balboa Park), which was rejected by San Diego voters. [21] However, the California legislature authorized a move to a new site in 1925 if San Diego was willing to buy the old school building and provide a new site. The following year the Citizen's Advisory Committee, a 21-member committee led by Mayor John L. Bacon, initially recommended the northeast part of Balboa Park that would be located over 122 acres (49 ha), but the location was voted down by San Diego voters. In 1927, another location was selected, this time in Encanto, but was also voted down. [22] In total, ten locations would be proposed before the final location was chosen. [23] By June 1928, the Bell-Lloyd Investment Company offered 125 acres (51 ha) at Mission Palisades, $50,000, and a promise to build a road connecting the site to El Cajon Blvd. The site was located at the east side of Mission Valley, about 10 miles (16 km) away from the old site. The group proposed the site in hopes of it being the center of a new retail and housing development. [24] Before the new site could be built, San Diego voters had to approve of buying the old site, which it did overwhelmingly on May 15, 1928. [23] After the move to the new campus, the old Normal School building was used for Horace Mann Junior High and administrative offices. In 1955, it was demolished to make room for a new wing of an administrative building. [25]

George B. McDougall was selected as the supervising architect and the State Department of Architecture for Public Buildings designed the new campus. The initial planned cost was $7.5 million. On October 7, 1929 classes were dismissed early so all current students could attend the groundbreaking held on that day. [26] Pettifer & Hupt was selected as the construction firm, and it completed several buildings by September 1930. [27] The first classes made up of 1,220 students were held at Montezuma Mesa in February 1931. [28]

The Great Depression, although negative to the local economy, also benefited the San Diego State Teachers College, as the federal government made money available for construction projects in an attempt to stimulate the economy. For the campus, some of these construction projects included new buildings (such as a $500,000 stadium completed in 1936 and a $200,000 open air theater completed in 1941), facilities, and art works. [29] [30] Several federal programs were also created to give jobs to students and to increase financial aid. [31]

Walter R. Hepner, explaining his purpose as President [32]

In June 1935, President Hardy retired and was replaced by Walter R. Hepner. The bell tower on campus was named in honor of Hardy in 1976. [33] On September 15, 1935, as a result of the California legislature dropping "teachers" from the names of state colleges, San Diego State Teachers College became San Diego State College (SDSC). [34] In 1935 the college began offering engineering courses. [33] During that period, the college acquired $18,000 from the state for the purpose of purchasing an additional 94 acres (38 ha). [35]

Just as World War I had a significant impact on the college, World War II was pivotal in the college's history too. Within four days of the attack on Pearl Harbor, thirteen students withdrew from the college to join the military. The enrollment dropped from 2,077 students in 1940 to a low of 860 students (21% were men) in spring 1943. Faculty decreased to as low as 60 from 112 before the war had begun. [36] Before the war was over, 3,500 SDSC graduates, students, former students, and faculty entered the armed forces, with 135 losing their lives. [36] [37] Not surprisingly for a city dominated by a naval base, a large majority joined the Navy. Others joined the Air Corps, participating in the Doolittle Raid over Japan and battles over the Philippines and the East Indies. [37] [38]

In 1942, the campus became a War Information Center, one of 140 in the nation. The center was established to boost civilian morale and practice air raid drills. Rationing on campus of sugar, gas, soft drinks, and paper became common throughout the war. [38] Classes were cut back due to the limited staff and the courses were shifted to more scientific and technological emphasis. [39] The majority of the sports were canceled during the war and various drives were held to increase supplies sent to troops. [40]

As the war neared its end, enrollment increased, until it reached 2,000 students in 1946. Nearly half of these students were veterans from the war, and they received a monthly stipend to assist with housing and tuition costs. [41] Sports and activities resumed to their prior levels and by the end of the 1940s, the faculty had expanded to 230 personnel and 40 part-time staff. [41] [42]

Walter R. Hepner, at the school’s 15th year anniversary in 1947 [43]

In 1946, Hepner grouped the various disciplines into seven divisions: Education, Fine Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. In 1950, the college awarded its first master's degree, and by the end of the decade offered master's degrees in 38 areas. [44] On May 23, 1947, Governor Earl Warren signed legislation making SDSC an official four-year liberal arts institution. [45]

In 1952 President Hepner retired, and was replaced by Malcolm A. Love, who previously served as president of the University of Nevada (since 1950). At this point, the college had more than 4,800 students, 222 faculty members, offered 27 majors, had a budget of $2.01 million and contributed more than $14 million to the local San Diego economy. [46]

By the end of the 1950s, the student population was over 10,000, placing it as the fourth largest California state institution and larger than 96% of the U.S.’s colleges and universities at the time. In 1957, entering freshmen scores on examinations were ranked in the top 10% of all universities in the U.S. In the following years, the college's scores also surpassed most of the other California state colleges. In 1957 the college became the first to use an identification number for each student, which was necessary to simplify handling of records, grades, and other tasks of the large number of students. To keep up with student expansion, the square footage of the buildings and classrooms was increased from 255,434 to 1,243,737. [47]

In 1959, the school began offering classes at Central Union High School in El Centro as part of its Imperial Valley branch. The campus remained focused on teacher training until the mid-1970s. In 1960, the school became the first California state college to have an educational radio station, KPBS-FM. [44]

Before World War II, less than 25% of the faculty had doctorates, and in an attempt to reach university status for the school, the 1956 Statement of General Policy on Employment of Faculty stipulated that incoming faculty had to have their doctorates (or soon receive one) in order to be hired. By the end of the 1950s, 56% of permanent faculty had doctorates. [48] By the beginning of 1965 this had increased to 68%. [49]

During the Red Scare, psychology professor Harry C. Steinmetz was accused of being a Communist. San Diego representatives persuaded the California legislature along with Governor Earl Warren to attempt to remove him from his teaching position. After the State Board of Education was unable to get an answer from Steinmetz about whether or not he was a Communist, he was dismissed on February 5, 1954. He attempted to be reinstated but never was even after the legislation that had been developed during the Red Scare was later deemed unconstitutional. [50] [51]

On July 1, 1961 as a result of the Donahue Act, SDSC became a part of the California State College system which included a new set of regulations for the school, along with a statewide board of trustees and a chancellor. The school continued to grow, with a population of 10,700 in 1960 and 25,500 in 1970. The San Diego county administrator Fred Morey reflected on so many graduates being hired by the county: "We would find it difficult to keep the County running without the help of San Diego State." [52]

John F. Kennedy, then the U.S. President, gave the graduation commencement address at Aztec Bowl in front of 40,000 people on June 6, 1963. [53] Kennedy was given an honorary doctorate degree in law at the ceremony, making San Diego State the first in California to award an honorary doctorate degree. [54] To commemorate his visit, the campus added his portrait to the campus library collection and a granite stone marker placed where his helicopter landed (California Historical Landmark #798). [52] In April 2008, a plaque that commemorated his visit was stolen and has yet to be recovered. [55] On May 29, 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. spoke at the Open Air Theater about proposed legislation in improving rights for African Americans. [56]

In 1965, San Diego State began offering a doctorate in chemistry in a joint effort with University of California, San Diego. By 1991, the campus had eight different doctorate programs. [57] Research became a vital practice of the faculty during the 1960s. By 1965, more than 200 books had been authored by SDSC faculty. Federal research grants increased from $398,202 in 1961 to $1,184,387 in 1967. Faculty research included medical and scientific research, teacher enhancement, Peace Corps training, and a review of nursing curricula. [57]

In 1966, the Carnegie Corporation named President Love one of the best college Presidents in the country. [58] President Love changed the structure of the college, developing its divisions into professional schools, which would allow them to be accredited. The schools were developed into colleges, which increased the possibility of SDSC of becoming a university. He reflected on San Diego State's progress in a Time magazine article: "Though we are called a college, we are in deed and in fact a university." [59]

Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s there were numerous protests, sit-ins, and radical changes in traditions among the students. Author Raymond Starr called this period ". the liveliest, most colorful, and most challenging in State’s history." [60] Students mainly protested racism and the war in Vietnam. In March 1970, 600 students held a week-long sit-in in protest of the decision of the campus leaders not to rehire four radical instructors. [60] Protests expanded to the presence of Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), military recruiters, the Police Community Relations Training Institute, among others. Significant speakers visited the campus during the time including Cesar Chavez, Jane Fonda, Angela Davis, Donald Freed, Joan Baez, and Jerry Brown. On April 20, 1972, 75 demonstrators took ROTC students hostage while they were taking an examination in the Business Administration and Math building. Although there was some violence, the students were released peacefully. [61] On May 3, 1972, 35 protesters (later growing to 2,000) smashed windows of the Administration building and burned copies of The Daily Aztec, the student newspaper. Protesters eventually entered the locked building and set fires on the first floor, and moved on to Aztec Center to set more fires and break windows. The mayhem resulted in six injuries and several thousand dollars in damages. On May 24, 1972 a bomb exploded in Tarastec Hall, injuring Lawrence Jackson, an African American student. A group of African American students marched on campus to show support for Jackson. [62]

The first women's studies program in the United States was established in 1970 at the college, after a year of intense organizing of women's consciousness raising groups, rallies, petition circulating, and operating unofficial or experimental classes and presentations before seven committees and assemblies. [63] [64]

In early 1971, President Love retired. With the extraordinary growth of students, faculty and facilities, there were plans for new library to be named in honor of him, which was dedicated in May 1971. [58] After a brief unsuccessful nomination of Walter Waetjen to replace Dr. Love, and Academic Vice President Walker acting as president for 1971–72, Brage Golding became the new president. He served from 1972 to 1977, and although he did not implement any mainstream changes as prior presidents had, he was instrumental in bringing in qualified administrators who would improve the school during its upcoming years. He worked to establish the San Diego History Research Center for collecting materials on the city's history and established the Educational Growth Opportunities program which offered classes for older people. At Golding's leaving of the university, one person commented: "By the end of the five-year administration, San Diego State University had grown into the institution implied by its name. This was the mark that Brage Golding left on San Diego State University." [65]

Golding left to lead Kent State, and with a brief intermission of Academic Vice President Trevor Colbourn serving as president, Thomas B. Day became the sixth president in 1978. When Proposition 13 passed, the school faced budget issues and Day proposed abolishing some departments, combining others, and laying off approximately 80 faculty members. However, budget cuts were deemed not necessary, and on April 8, 1980, Day again proposed cutting 115 faculty members and four departments due to foreseeing upcoming budget cuts on May 16, 1980 he recanted his comments. [66]

President Love had fought hard throughout his tenure to increase SDSC's ranking from a college to a university. In 1972, the California legislature approved the renaming of the school to "California State University, San Diego". San Diego State officials were still not happy with the name, and on January 1, 1974, it was renamed to "San Diego State University" (SDSU), its current name. [67]

In 1987, the school reached its peak attendance with 35,945 students, resulting in SDSU being the largest university in California and 10th in the nation. Due to the overwhelming number of students and available facilities and majors, the California State University Board of Trustees decided to limit enrollment to 33,000. However, in 1993, enrollment dropped to 26,800, the lowest attendance since 1973 as a result of the budget crisis of 1991. [68]

In 1984, the California Higher Education Journal ranked SDSU as first among the CSU campuses and U.S. News and World Report ranked the school among the top five comprehensive universities in the west in 1983, third in 1985, and in the top fifteen in 1989. In the 1980s, the College of Business' School of Accountancy was the only accredited accountancy program in California. Throughout the decade students scored the highest score on the Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) exam three times, and by 1990 was second in the nation (after the University of Texas) for graduates passing the CPA exam. [68]

In January 1987, Playboy ranked SDSU as the 3rd best party school in the nation, which appalled some administrators, and amused students. The ranking was determined on a number of factors including the education offered at the university, social opportunities, the male–female ratio, and off-campus activities located near the campus. [69] Some students feared that the ranking would diminish the quality of their degree. [70] In 2002 it dropped to tenth place, and in 2005 was included again without a specific rank, before jumping to fifth place in 2006. [69] [71]

The Graduate School of Public Health was first offered to students in 1981, and was one of only 24 accredited schools of public health in the nation and the only one in the CSU system in 1995. President Day considered it the major achievement of his administration, and it provided training in hospitals, public health agencies, health maintenance organizations, ambulatory care, and mental health facilities. [72]

In the 1990s, the College of Business was the fourth largest undergraduate program in the U.S. [73] By 1989–90 SDSU was granting over 1,100 Master's degrees and 10 doctoral degrees a year. [74]

As a result of the California state government proposed budget cuts to the CSU campuses, 1991 to 1994 at SDSU were marked by a long period of university budget stress, faculty unrest/layoffs, and student protests against SDSU fee increases and class cuts. [75]

Spring of 1991 brought large fee increases and budget cuts by the governor and state legislature to the California State University (CSU) and University of California (UC) systems impacted SDSU in a unique way. While other schools in the systems chose an across the board approach on campus, the president of SDSU at the time, Thomas Day, chose to use a "deep and narrow" approach to program cuts. The result were largest student marches and protests since the Vietnam war. [75] [76] [77]

Yet again in Spring 1992, the CSU and UC systems were facing another round of severe budget cuts and dramatic student fee increases by the state government. Still a second time, SDSU President Thomas Day took the same deep and narrow approach for budget cuts for SDSU, but this time proposed elimination of not only full-time faculty professors, but of entire majors such as Aerospace Engineering. In and attempt to alleviate fears of students in those majors, a large meeting by President Day was planned in the student center with hundreds of students and teachers. However, meeting quickly turned angry and chaotic with an overcapacity crowd pressing against the glass windows outside. Following the meeting, students feeling betrayed a 2nd time after 1991, about a dozen students held a temporary occupation of President Day's office. This occupation led to a 24-hour vigil in front of the Administration building, summer student bus trips to the state legislature in Sacramento, large campus student voter registration drive, and further student marches and protests in the Fall 1992. [78] Under heavy student, teacher, and public pressure, the conclusion of these events ended with CSU Chancellor Barry Munitz eventually reversing President Day's deep and narrow approach, saving the majors and programs in Fall 1992. [75]

Central and parallel to the SDSU student protest movement was an 8 foot high wooden construction fence that encircled the a new campus building. Students quickly put up protest messages, paintings, and cartoons urging students to rally, vote, and challenge the school president. Citing a need to "clean up" the campus during graduation of 1991, President Day attempted to paint over the now symbolic construction fence wall. The night before the attempted wall paint over by President Day, a large police force arrested eight students peacefully sitting in front of the wall. The next morning, word quickly gathered on campus about the arrests and dozens of student rushed to sit in front of the wall ultimately stopping the painters. [79]

On May 1994, the student government dedicated a permanent memorial to the wall in Pfiefer Lounge (later a Starbucks and now the new Student Center) a few yards from the wall's edge. The student memorial to the protests included the wall painting of President Day's head in a guillotine. [80]

When President Day retired in July 1996, SDSU's incoming freshman had a 38% success rate in graduating from the university within six years. [81] Day was replaced by the university's seventh president, Stephen Weber. [82] Just one month later, on August 15, in what is known as the San Diego State University shooting, a 36-year-old graduate student pulled out a handgun while defending his thesis and killed three professors. [83] The student pleaded guilty and is serving a life sentence prison term. On August 23, 2003, a memorial was dedicated to the three professors that included three trees along with a set of three tables and benches. [84]

On July 10, 2005 a new trolley station opened on the SDSU campus, after construction began in 1999. The station connected students and faculty with other areas in San Diego county and helped to combat the low availability of parking around campus. The $103 million station was just one of the university's several construction projects that occurred in the 2000s. [85] Starting in the late 1990s, a $500 million College Community Redevelopment Project led to the development of the $8.5 million Piedra del Sol Apartments, the $14.3 million Fraternity Row, and future developments of a $15 million Sorority Row, a $150 million Paseo retail, office, and apartment project, as well as a $125 million research and office park. [86] In 2003, a pedestrian bridge opened, connecting several of the dorms to the main campus. [87] In the same year, the campus's most technologically advanced and largest classroom (capable of holding 500 students) was completed. [88] Through 2008 and 2009, the campus began work on constructing a new alumni center, expanding Aztec Center, and modifying Storm Hall and Nasitir Hall to add more office and classroom space. [89]

In June 2007, SDSU was deemed the number one small research university in the nation. The ranking was determined based on faculty productivity, honorary awards, publications in journals, and number of research grants received. At any point, the campus usually has around 800 studies in progress in various fields. [90] A 2007 study revealed that the campus has an economic impact of $2.4 billion on the San Diego region. Due to projections of current and future growth, the study indicated that the school's economic impact is expected to increase to $4.5 billion by 2025. [91]

On May 6, 2008, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced the arrest of 96 individuals, of whom 75 were San Diego State University students, on a variety of drug charges in a multiple-month narcotics sting called Operation Sudden Fall. Two kilograms of cocaine were seized, along with 50 pounds of marijuana, 350 Ecstasy pills, hash oil, methamphetamine, other drug paraphernalia, three guns, and $60,000 in cash. [92] Several months after the May 6 announcement, it was reported that the majority of the defendants had pleaded guilty to the felony charges. The defendants were then either placed on probation or were required to enter drug diversion programs. Other defendants only received citations or had their cases dismissed. [93]

In 2010, after 15 years as president, Weber announced his upcoming retirement for the following year. Weber was credited for improving the graduation rate in 2003, 66% of freshmen were graduating within six years. [81] In May 2011, University of Maryland Baltimore County senior vice president Elliot Hirshman was named by the CSU Board of Trustees to replace Weber. Hirshman assumed his appointed role as president in July. [94]

After the departure of the San Diego Chargers for Los Angeles in 2017, SDSU endeavored to gain control of the city stadium (then called Qualcomm Stadium) and surrounding city property, which is just across the freeway from the main campus and where SDSU football games are played. The proposal, called SDSU West, was put to city voters in November 2017 where it won approval by 54% of those voting, easily beating out a competing commercial proposal called SoccerCity. [95] [96] Negotiations began for SDSU to purchase the property from the city of San Diego. On May 29, 2020, the city council gave conceptual approval to sell 135 acres, including the stadium, to San Diego State for $88 million. [97] SDSU hopes to break ground for a new 35,000 seat stadium in August 2020. The stadium will house SDSU football games as well other NCAA games, professional soccer and special events such as concerts. [98] [99] The entire $3.5 billion project, which includes housing, office and retail space, hotels, and 80 acres of parks and open space including a 34 acre river park on city property, will be rolled out in phases over 15 years. [97]


that will allow her to spend 2020-2021 doing her dissertation research in Israel. Trisha’s work focuses on the role of science and society in early twentieth century Palestinian society. She is advised by Tal Golan.

First, she won a Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Completion Fellowship for the 2020-2021 academic year to finish her dissertation project: “’Dope Hope’: The Synanon Foundation, Grassroots Recovery Activism, and Popular Struggles over Addiction Treatment, 1945-1980.” She also received a four-month research fellowship at the Huntington Library in San Marino (an institution that has been very kind to our department recently). She will officially be the Molina Fellow in the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences and an Evelyn S. Nation Fellow. Jordan is co-advised by Rebecca Plant and Luis Alvarez.


The Journal of San Diego History

Published continuously since 1955, the Journal is one of only a few scholarly publications dedicated to the history of a major American metropolitan region. Published in collaboration with the University of San Diego, the Journal is held in many library collections across the U.S.

Message from the Co-editors of The Journal of San Diego History

The San Diego History Center presents here an archive of every issue of The Journal of San Diego History since its inception in 1955. The varied material in this collection demonstrates how the interpretation of history changes over time as succeeding generations of scholars bring to bear new sources, methodologies, and theories that challenge prevailing interpretations.

We encourage readers to be mindful that because scholarship changes over time, each article must be interpreted within a broader context of other scholarship on that particular issue. In browsing past content, readers should recognize that any specific article is not necessarily representative of the full range of scholarship the Journal has published on that topic. Nor does any one past article necessarily reflect the History Center’s efforts to offer more critical and contemporary perspectives through exhibitions and on-the-ground programs.

We also encourage readers to read every article with a critical eye. Bear in mind that scholarly standards have changed over time. Some older articles do not include a diversity of voices, while others might be mostly descriptive of the topic with no integration of critical sources. And still others might include some editorializing about the “value” of a given subject, a standard which itself changes over time.

We offer this preface as a guide to the general reading public as they interact with these materials. The availability here of any article of the past 65+ years does not necessarily equal endorsement of that material by the History Center or ignorance of recent developments in the relevant scholarship.

To view archived issues of the Journal: Journal
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All material in the print and on-line versions of the Journal of San Diego History is protected by copyright, © San Diego History Center. For more information about the Journal including policies and submissions: Journal Policies & Submissions (pdf)

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San Diego State University

Since its founding in 1897, the university has grown to become a leading public research university. Each year, SDSU provides more than 36,000 students with the opportunity to participate in an academic curriculum distinguished by direct contact with faculty and an international emphasis that prepares them for a global future.

Students help move to the new SDSU campus in 1930.

In The Beginning

Serving the San Diego region has always been a core part of SDSU’s mission.

Founded March 13, 1897, San Diego State University began as the San Diego Normal School, a training facility for elementary school teachers. Seven faculty and 91 students met in temporary quarters over a downtown drugstore before moving to a newly constructed 17-acre campus on Park Boulevard.

The curriculum was limited at first to English, history and mathematics. Course offerings broadened rapidly under the leadership of Samuel T. Black, who left his position as state superintendent of public instruction to become the new school's first president. Black served from 1898 to 1910.

From 1910 to 1935, President Edward L. Hardy headed a vigorous administration that oversaw major changes to the fledgling institution. In 1921, the Normal School became San Diego State Teachers College, a four-year public institution controlled by the state Board of Education. In that same year, the two-year San Diego Junior College, forerunner of today's local community colleges, became a branch of San Diego State Teachers College. That union lasted until 1946.

SDSU's new campus on Montezuma Mesa in 1930.

San Diego State national champion basketball team from 1941.

1931 Relocation

By the 1920s, the college was already beginning to outgrow its Park Boulevard location, and San Diegans launched a campaign to build a new campus on the city's eastern border.

In February 1931, students, faculty and staff moved into seven Mission Revival-style buildings surrounding a common area still known as the Main Quad.

Four years later, the state Legislature authorized expansion of degree programs beyond teacher education, and San Diego State Teachers College became San Diego State College. Also in 1935, Walter R. Hepner took the helm as president, beginning a 17-year tenure.

The college continued to grow over time, reaching an enrollment of more than 25,000 students during the administration of Malcolm A. Love, who served as president from 1952 to 1971. The SDSU library is named after Love.

In 1960, San Diego State College became part of the newly created California State College system, now known as The California State University system.

In 1963, just months before he was assassinated, President John F. Kennedy gave the commencement address at San Diego State College. President Kennedy received the university's first honorary doctorate – also the first in the CSU system.

In the early 1970s, with legislative approval, San Diego State College became San Diego State University.

Leading the institution during the 1970s were Acting President Donald E. Walker (1971-1972), President Brage Golding (1972-1977), Acting President Trevor Colbourn (1977-1978) and President Thomas B. Day, whose tenure spanned 1978 to 1996.

Day championed the teacher-scholar model for faculty and promoted research across campus. His vision led the way for new areas of exploration and an increase in research grants and contracts awarded to SDSU faculty.

In 1996, Stephen L. Weber became the university's seventh president, presiding over the university's significant gains in student preparation and graduation, study abroad, philanthropy, research and other areas of excellence.

Elliot Hirshman served as president of San Diego State University from 2011 to June 30, 2017 – a period in which SDSU raised its profile as a major public research university. SDSU created a new strategic plan, raised over $800 million for scholarships and new initiatives and programs, established and endowed the Susan and Stephen Weber Honors College, and built and remodeled facilities across campus.

Sally Roush – a former senior vice president at SDSU – began her term as interim president on July 1, 2017. She is the first woman to be named president of San Diego State University.

On Jan. 31, it was announced that Dr. Adela de la Torre, vice chancellor for student affairs and campus diversity at UC Davis, would become the university's ninth president in late June 2018.

SDSU coach Don Coryell, shown in 1961, pioneered football's air-oriented attack.

President Kennedy giving the 1963 SDSU Commencement address.

Future Hall-of-Famer Tony Gwynn played college ball at SDSU.

Kawhi Leonard developed his NBA All-Star skills at SDSU.

SDSU Today

Now in its 121st year, San Diego State University can take pride in more than a century of achievement in education, research and service.

SDSU ranks in the top 10 for students studying abroad and for ethnic and diversity Forbes, Fortune and U.S. News & World Report rank it top 25 for entrepreneurship and the university has produced 88 Fulbright student scholars since 2005.

With an enrollment of more than 36,000 students, SDSU is increasingly becoming a top choice for undergraduates as evidenced by the record number of applications received each year.

Renowned for its academic excellence, the university is home to highly ranked graduate programs in business engineering public health psychology fine arts biological sciences public affairs education and speech, language, and hearing sciences. Ranked undergraduate programs include business, engineering and international business. Overall, SDSU students can choose from 91 undergraduate majors, 76 master's programs and 23 doctoral degree programs.

Local Connection

Committed to serving the richly diverse San Diego region, SDSU ranks among the top universities nationwide in terms of ethnic, racial and economic diversity among its student body, as well as in the number of bachelor's degrees conferred upon students of color.

The Price Community Scholars program provides financial support for first-generation local students with track records of strong academic achievement and leadership in high school. In turn, these students mentor local middle school students on the road to higher education. SDSU's Guardian Scholars program provides support, including academic mentoring and year-round housing, to students leaving the foster-care system.

Research

Increasingly recognized for innovative research, SDSU is Carnegie classified as a R2 doctoral university with higher research activity. Students pursue real-world challenges under the guidance of internationally recognized mentors in cutting-edge labs, entrepreneurship centers and business incubators.

Campus Growth

Perhaps the most visible evidence of SDSU's growth is in the physical additions to its San Diego campus and its continued commitment to providing a state-of-the-art learning environment for students, faculty and staff. The university has reimagined and renovated academic buildings and complexes, the library, labs and residence halls. A new Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences Complex houses instructional areas and provides ample capacity for collaborative space and labs for interdisciplinary teams and SDSU's entrepreneurship centers.

The Conrad Prebys Aztec Student Union serves as the center of SDSU university life. It contains many sustainable and energy-efficient features and has obtained LEED-certified platinum status for both building features and operations. In addition, the Parma Payne Goodall Alumni Center welcomes alumni back to campus and provides a professional meeting and events venue for the entire San Diego region.

Notable Alumni

Beyond accolades and campus expansion, San Diego State University remains, as always, most proud of its alumni family, more than 400,000 strong.

Among those who call themselves Aztecs are Hollywood producer and Lucasfilm president Kathleen Kennedy former Federal Trade Commission chair Timothy Muris former Air Force Chief of Staff, Gen. Merrill A. "Tony" McPeak San Diego Mayor Kevin Faulconer San Diego County Supervisors Greg Cox, Dianne Jacob, Ron Roberts and Bill Horn astronaut and Johnson Space Center director Ellen Ochoa Costco co-founder Jim Sinegal and restaurant executives Linda A. Lang, former CEO of Jack in the Box restaurants, and Ralph Rubio, founder and chairman of Rubio’s Fresh Mexican Grill.

Aztec alumni also include entertainers Gregory Peck, Marion Ross, Julie Kavner, and Kathy Najimy Baseball Hall of Famer Tony Gwynn former Major League Baseball manager Bud Black U.S. Open winner and former PGA tour golfer Gene Littler America's Cup skipper Dennis Conner Washington Nationals pitcher Stephen Strasburg and basketball star Kawhi Leonard, named NBA Defensive Player of the Year and NBA Finals MVP in 2015.

The success of these individuals and thousands of other SDSU alumni attest to the motivating influence of their alma mater. From modest beginnings, San Diego State University has evolved into a premier center of education, research and service.

Sell-out crowd for men's basketball at Viejas Arena.

University Mission

The mission of San Diego State University is to provide research-oriented, high-quality education for undergraduate and graduate students and to contribute to the solution of problems through excellence and distinction in teaching, research, and service. The university strives to impart an appreciation and broad understanding of the human experience throughout the world and the ages. This education extends to diverse cultural legacies and accomplishments in many areas, such as the arts and technology the advancement of human thought including philosophy and science the development of economic, political, and social institutions and the physical and biological evolution of humans and their environment. San Diego State University pursues its mission through its many diverse departments and interdisciplinary programs in the creative and performing arts, the humanities, the sciences, and the social and behavioral sciences.


Contents

When the Regents of the University of California originally authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. [29] Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres (24 ha) of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres (220 ha) of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres (200 ha) on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle, then director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community's exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups. This outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley. [29]

UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego. [1] [29] The city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, and the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor. Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. [29] York planned the main campus according to the "Oxbridge" model, relying on many of Revelle's ideas. [30]

According to Kerr, "San Diego always asked for the best," though this created much friction throughout the UC system, including with Kerr himself, because UC San Diego often seemed to be "asking for too much and too fast." [29] Kerr attributed UC San Diego's "special personality" to Scripps, which for over five decades had been the most isolated UC unit in every sense: geographically, financially, and institutionally. [29] It was a great shock to the Scripps community to learn that Scripps was now expected to become the nucleus of a new UC campus and would now be the object of far more attention from both the university administration in Berkeley and the state government in Sacramento. [29]

UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed "from the top down" in terms of research emphasis. [31] Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter. [30] [32] The original authorization for the San Diego campus given by the UC Regents in 1956 approved a "graduate program in science and technology" that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters' approval. [30]

Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, and Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958. [32] Maria Goeppert-Mayer, later the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960. [32] The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. [30]

By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, and new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, and the whole site was designated the First College, later renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year and was replaced by John Semple Galbraith. [32] The undergraduate program accepted its first class of 181 freshman at Revelle College in 1964. [30] [33] Second College was founded in 1964, on the land deeded by the federal government, and named after environmentalist John Muir two years later. [34] The School of Medicine also accepted its first students in 1966. [32]

Political theorist Herbert Marcuse joined the faculty in 1965. A champion of the New Left, he reportedly was the first protester to occupy the administration building in a demonstration organized by his student, political activist Angela Davis. [35] The American Legion offered to buy out the remainder of Marcuse's contract for $20,000 the Regents censured Chancellor William J. McGill for defending Marcuse on the basis of academic freedom, but further action was averted after local leaders expressed support for Marcuse. [32] Further student unrest was felt at the university, as the United States increased its involvement in the Vietnam War during the mid-1960s, when a student raised a Viet Minh flag over the campus. [30] Protests escalated as the war continued and were only exacerbated after the National Guard fired on student protesters at Kent State University in 1970. Over 200 students occupied Urey Hall, with one student setting himself on fire in protest of the war. [30] [36]

Early research activity and faculty quality, notably in the sciences, was integral to shaping the focus and culture of the university. Even before UC San Diego had its own campus, faculty recruits had already made significant research breakthroughs, such as the Keeling Curve, a graph that plots rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and was the first significant evidence for global climate change the Kohn–Sham equations, used to investigate particular atoms and molecules in quantum chemistry and the Miller–Urey experiment, which gave birth to the field of prebiotic chemistry. [37] [38] [39]

Engineering, particularly computer science, became an important part of the university's academics as it matured. University researchers helped develop UCSD Pascal, an early machine-independent programming language that later heavily influenced Java [40] [41] [42] [43] the National Science Foundation Network, a precursor to the Internet and the Network News Transfer Protocol during the late 1970s to 1980s. [44] In economics, the methods for analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH), and with common trends (cointegration) were developed. UC San Diego maintained its research intense character after its founding, racking up 25 Nobel Laureates affiliated within 50 years of history a rate of five per decade.

Under Richard C. Atkinson's leadership as chancellor from 1980 to 1995, the university strengthened its ties with the city of San Diego by encouraging technology transfer with developing companies, transforming San Diego into a world leader in technology-based industries. He oversaw a rapid expansion of the School of Engineering, later renamed after Qualcomm founder Irwin M. Jacobs, with the construction of the San Diego Supercomputer Center [45] and establishment of the computer science, electrical engineering, and bioengineering departments. [46] Private donations increased from $15 million to nearly $50 million annually, faculty expanded by nearly 50%, and enrollment doubled to about 18,000 students during his administration. By the end of his chancellorship, the quality of UC San Diego graduate programs was ranked 10th in the nation by the National Research Council. [47]

The university continued to undergo further expansion during the first decade of the new millennium with the establishment and construction of two new professional schools — the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Rady School of Management—and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, a research institute run jointly with UC Irvine. UC San Diego also reached two financial milestones during this time, becoming the first university in the western region to raise over $1 billion in its eight-year fundraising campaign in 2007 [48] and also obtaining an additional $1 billion through research contracts and grants in a single fiscal year for the first time in 2010. [1] Despite this, due to the California budget crisis, the university loaned $40 million against its own assets in 2009 to offset a significant reduction in state educational appropriations. [49] The salary of Pradeep Khosla, who became chancellor in 2012, has been the subject of controversy amidst continued budget cuts and tuition increases. [3] In 2012, campus launched a 10-year, $2 billion fundraising campaign, which the campus completed 3 years early in 2019, making it the youngest university in the United States to have completed a $2 billion fundraiser. [50] [51]

On November 27, 2017, the university announced it would leave its longtime athletic home of the California Collegiate Athletic Association, an NCAA Division II league, to begin a transition to Division I in 2020. It joined the Big West Conference, already home to four other UC campuses (Davis, Irvine, Riverside, Santa Barbara). The university transitioned to NCAA Division I competition on July 1, 2020. [52] The transition period will run through the 2023–24 school year. [53]

UC San Diego is located in the residential neighborhood of La Jolla of northern San Diego, bordered by the communities of La Jolla Shores, Torrey Pines, and University City. The main campus consists of 761 buildings that occupy 1,152 acres (466 ha), with natural reserves covering about 889 acres (360 ha) and outlying facilities taking up the remaining area. [13] The San Diego Freeway passes through the campus and separates Jacobs Medical Center and Mesa apartment housing from the greater part of the university. The Preuss School, a college-preparatory charter school established and administered by UC San Diego, also lies on the eastern portion of the campus. [54]

Standing at the center of the university is the iconic Geisel Library, named after Dr. Seuss. Library Walk, a heavily traveled pathway leading from the library to Gilman Drive, lies adjacent or close to Price Center, Center Hall, International Center, and various student services buildings, including the Student Services Center and the Career Services building. The layout of the main campus centers on Geisel Library, which is roughly surrounded by the seven residential colleges of Revelle, Muir, Marshall, Warren, Roosevelt, Sixth, Seventh, and the School of Medicine. The seven colleges maintain separate housing facilities for their students and each college's buildings are differentiated by distinct architectural styles. As residential colleges were added while the university expanded, buildings in newer colleges were designed with styles that were starkly different from that of the original campus. The disparate architectural styles led Travel + Leisure, in its October 2013 issue, to name the university as one of the ugliest campuses in America, likening it to "a cupboard full of kitchen appliances whose function you can't quite fathom." [55]

In addition to its academic and housing facilities, the campus features eucalyptus groves, [56] the Birch Aquarium and museum, and several major research centers. The Scripps Institution owns a sea port and several open ocean vessels for marine research. [57] [58] Several large shake facilities, including the world record holding Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table, used for earthquake simulations, are also maintained by the university. [59]

The university has actively sought to reduce carbon emissions and energy usage on campus, earning a "gold" sustainability performance rating in the Sustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating System (STARS) survey. It was also praised in The Princeton Review's Guide to 322 Green Colleges: 2013 Edition for its strong commitment to sustainability in its academic offerings, campus infrastructure, activities and career preparation. [60]

Academic facilities Edit

When the campus opened in 1964, it consisted only of Revelle College and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The school's rapid increase in enrollment and opening to undergraduate students over its first decade spurred major campus expansion. Muir, Marshall, and Warren Colleges were established and built during the late 1960s through 1980s as the student population continued to grow considerably. Initially, the campus followed a rough north–south axis alongside Historic Route 101, though construction in the following decades deviated from this, with the core of the campus shifting towards Geisel Library. [1]

The school's two engineering departments were merged into the School of Engineering (renamed the Jacobs School of Engineering in 1987 in honor of Irwin Jacobs, founder of Qualcomm, and his wife Joan Jacobs) in 1982. New buildings have been continually added as the division expands. Major additions include: the San Diego Supercomputer Center, completed in 1986 Powell-Focht Bioengineering Hall, completed in 2003 and the Structural and Materials Engineering building, completed in 2012. [45] [61] [62] Significant construction work on the previously undeveloped northern part of campus also took place during this time. Two graduate professional schools, the School of Global Policy and Strategy and Rady School of Management, were constructed in the area adjacent to and near the Supercomputer Center, as well as Roosevelt College, a transfer student apartment complex called The Village at Torrey Pines, and the RIMAC athletic facilities.

Arts facilities Edit

UC San Diego's Joan and Irwin Jacobs Theatre District, located just south of Revelle College, houses the Mandell Weiss Center for the Performing Arts. The Center's facilities are shared with the La Jolla Playhouse, a professional theatre which UC San Diego is partnered with. Specifically, four large performance venues are shared between the two organizations: the Mandell Weiss Forum, the Mandell Weiss Theatre, the Sheila and Hughes Potiker Theatre, and the Theodore and Adele Shank Theatre. These venues, on top of hosting UC San Diego Theatre and Dance departmental undergraduate and graduate productions, often host professional productions of plays and musicals, some of which later transfer to Broadway. Other theatre performance facilities at UC San Diego include the Molli and Arthur Wagner Dance Building, also located within the Theatre District, and the Arthur Wagner Theatre located in Revelle College's Galbraith Hall. [63] [64] [65]

Other arts facilities include the 800-seat Mandeville Auditorium and Conrad Prebys Music Center, used by UC San Diego's music department, as well as Mandeville Center, the Visual Arts Facilities (VAF) building, and the Structural and Material Engineerings (SME) building, used by UC San Diego's visual arts department. [66] [67]

Public art Edit

More than a dozen public art projects, part of the Stuart Collection, decorate the campus. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Sun God, a large winged creature by Niki de Saint Phalle located near the Faculty Club. Other collection pieces include Richard Fleischner's La Jolla Project (a collection of Stonehenge-like stone blocks), Do Ho Suh's Fallen Star (a house sitting atop an engineering building in Warren College), a table by Jenny Holzer, an installation by Bruce Nauman on the Powell Structural Systems Laboratory titled Vices and Virtues, and three metallic Eucalyptus trees by Terry Allen.

The collection also includes a work by Alexis Smith consisting of a path made of a large coiling snake whose head guides towards Geisel Library, with a quote from John Milton's Paradise Lost carved along its length: "And wilt thou not be loath to leave this Paradise, but shalt possess a Paradise within thee, happier far." The path circles around its own garden and a large granite book-shaped block. One of the newest additions to the collection is Tim Hawkinson's giant teddy bear made of six boulders located in between the newly constructed Calit2 buildings. [68] Another notable campus sight was the graffiti staircase of Mandeville Hall, a series of corridors that had been tagged with graffiti by generations of students over decades of use this was recently replaced with the Graffiti Art Park. [69] Students in the university's visual arts department also create temporary public art installations as part of their coursework. The university is sponsoring a $56,000 performance art project to develop a sense of community at the sprawling campus. [70]

Shepard Fairey, most notable for his Barack Obama "Hope" poster, painted a mural at the Ché Café, one of UC San Diego's most famous buildings and collectives, on an outside wall facing Scholars Drive, that features the likenesses of Martin Luther King Jr. and other political figures. Underground street artist, Swampy, created a large piece inside the Ché Café, visible through the courtyard depicting his signature mammoth skeleton. Local San Diego artist Mario Torero, in collaboration with university art students, painted a mural at the Café in commemoration of Angela Davis and Rigoberta Menchú, along with other notable political figures. The Ché Café remains a hub for underground and politically progressive artists. Torero was invited back to the university in 2009 to create a mural called "Chicano Legacy" based on content suggested by Chicano students. [71] The mural is a $10,000 digital image on a 15-by-50-foot (4.6 by 15.2 m) canvas mounted on the exterior of Peterson Hall, which includes representations of César Chávez and Dolores Huerta as well as the kiosk structure at Chicano Park. [72] In 2016 a mural entitled "Enduring Spell" was completed by El Mac in the Argo courtyard, [73]

Transportation Edit

UC San Diego maintains about 17,000 parking spaces and offers a number of alternative transportation options. [74] [75] The university runs a shuttle system, which is provided free for students, faculty, and staff, that services the main campus, UC San Diego Medical Center, university affiliated research centers, nearby apartment complexes and shopping centers in University City, and the Sorrento Valley train station. As part of a greater initiative to reduce the university's impact on the environment, a portion of the shuttle fleet has been refitted to exclusively use biodiesel fuel derived from vegetable oil. [76] UCSD also reserves parking spaces for carpools, maintains a fleet of on-campus Zipcars, and provides free bike rentals.

The San Diego Association of Governments and the Metropolitan Transit System are planning to bring San Diego Trolley service to the local area. The project will extend the existing Blue Line north to UC San Diego and the University City area from Downtown San Diego. The extension will give the university campus two trolley stations, East and West. There is also a proposed station at the Veterans Administration hospital just south of UCSD. A major goal of the project is to ease traffic and parking on campus while providing more accessible transportation to nearby areas. Construction began in 2016, with service expected to begin in 2021. As part of UCSD's existing public transit partnerships, all students have unlimited access to MTS regional buses and trolleys, as well as most North County Transit District transportation services upon paying a "transportation fee" in registration. [77]

Construction Edit

Several facilities are currently under construction at the UC San Diego campus. The North Torrey Pines Living and Learning Neighborhood is partially completed, with students living in the completed facilities since Fall 2020. [78] The Future College Living and Learning Neighborhood is scheduled to open in Fall 2023. [79] Other planned facilities in development or under construction include the Nuevo East Student Housing, Nuevo West Graduate Housing, Viterbi Family Eye Research Center, Design and Innovation Building, and Franklin Antonio Hall. [80]

There is also significant infrastructure construction, including the UCSD West and UCSD East trolley stations, which will connect the campus to the Downtown San Diego area.

UC San Diego is a large, primarily residential, public research university accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges that offers a four-year Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degree to undergraduate students. [81] The full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments at the university. The university offers 125 bachelor's degree programs organized into five disciplinary divisions: arts and humanities, biological sciences, engineering, mathematics and physical sciences, and social sciences. [82] [83] Students are also free to design special majors or engage in dual majors. [84] 38% of undergraduates major in the social sciences, followed by 25% in biological sciences, 18% in engineering, 8% in sciences and math, 4% in humanities, and 3% in the arts. [85]

UC San Diego's comprehensive graduate program is composed of several divisions and professional schools, including the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, School of Medicine, Institute of Engineering in Medicine, School of Global Policy and Strategy, Jacobs School of Engineering, Rady School of Management, and Skaggs School of Pharmacy. The university offers 35 masters programs, 47 doctoral programs, five professional programs, and nine joint doctoral programs with San Diego State University and other UC campuses. [86] UC San Diego has highly ranked graduate programs in biological sciences and medicine, [87] economics, social and behavioral sciences, physics, and computer engineering. [88]

The university also offers a continuing and public education program through UC San Diego Extension. [89] Approximately 50,000 enrollees per year are educated in this branch of the university, [89] which offers over 100 professional and specialized certificate programs. [89] Courses are offered at Extension facilities, located both on the main campus and off-campus, and also online. [89] UC San Diego Extension offers programs in Arts & Humanities, Business & Leadership, Data Analysis & Mathematics, Digital Arts, Education, Engineering, Environment & Sustainability, International Programs, Languages, Law, Occupational Safety & Health, Pre-College, Sciences, Technology, and Writing, as well as public programs such as the UC San Diego Osher Lifelong Learning Institute and the Helen Edison Lecture Series. [90] UC San Diego Extension also plans to open a 66,000-square-foot hub at the corner of Park Boulevard and Market Street in East Village referred to as the Innovative Cultural and Education Hub. The project is slated to be completed in 2020 and plans to "advance the burgeoning tech ecosystem downtown, contribute to the city’s lively arts and culture scene, and connect in multiple ways with diverse neighborhoods such as Barrio Logan, the Diamond District, and Golden Hill." [91] [92] [93]

Residential colleges Edit

UC San Diego's undergraduate division is organized into seven residential colleges, each headed by its own provost. They all set their own general education requirements, manage separate administrative and advising staff, and grant unique degrees. In chronological order by date of foundation, the seven colleges are:

    , founded in 1964 as First College, emphasizes a "Renaissance education" through the Humanities sequence which integrates history, literature, and philosophy. It has highly structured requirements. , founded in 1967 as Second College, emphasizes a "spirit of self-sufficiency and individual choice" and offers loosely structured general-education requirements. , founded in 1970 as Third College, emphasizes "scholarship, social responsibility and the belief that a liberal arts education must include an understanding of one's role in society". , founded in 1974 as Fourth College, requires students to pursue a major of their choice while also requiring two "programs of concentration" in disciplines unrelated to each other and their major "toward a life in balance". , founded in 1988 as Fifth College, focuses its core education program on a cross-cultural interdisciplinary course sequence entitled "Making of the Modern World", has a foreign language requirement, and encourages studying abroad. , founded in 2001, has a focus on "historical and philosophical connections among culture, art, and technology." , founded in 2020, enrolled its first cohort of students in Fall 2020, with the theme "A Changing Planet."

Students affiliate with a college based upon its particular philosophy and environment as majors are not exclusive to specific colleges. Revelle and Sixth enroll the largest number of undergraduate students, followed by Warren, Muir, Roosevelt, and Marshall. [94] Each undergraduate college sets different requirements for awarding graduation and provost's honors, separate from departmental and Phi Beta Kappa honors.

Governance Edit

As one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system, UC San Diego is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents consisting of 18 officials appointed by the Governor of California, seven ex officio members, and a single student regent. The current president of the University of California is Michael Drake, and the administrative head of UC San Diego is Pradeep Khosla. [95] Academic policies are set by the school's Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all university faculty members. [96] Nine vice chancellors manage academic affairs, research, diversity, marine sciences, student affairs, planning, external relations, business affairs, and health sciences and report directly to the chancellor. [97]

Research Edit

The Nature Index lists UC San Diego as 6th in the United States for research output by article count in 2019. [98] In 2017, UC San Diego spent $1.13 billion on research, the 7th highest expenditure among academic institutions in the U.S. [99] The university operates several organized research units, including the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), the Center for Drug Discovery Innovation, and the Institute for Neural Computation. [100] UC San Diego also maintains close ties to the nearby Scripps Research and Salk Institute for Biological Studies. In 1977, UC San Diego developed and released the UCSD Pascal programming language. The university was designated as one of the original national Alzheimer's disease research centers in 1984 by the National Institute on Aging. [101] In 2018, UC San Diego received $10.5 million from the National Nuclear Security Administration to establish the Center for Matters under Extreme Pressure (CMEC). [102]

The university founded the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) in 1985, which provides high-performance computing for research in various scientific disciplines. In 2000, UC San Diego partnered with UC Irvine to create the Qualcomm Institute, which integrates research in photonics, nanotechnology, and wireless telecommunication to develop solutions to problems in energy, health, and the environment. [103]

UC San Diego also operates the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), one of the largest centers of research in earth science in the world, which predates the university itself. Together, SDSC and SIO, along with funding partner universities Caltech, SDSU, and UC Santa Barbara, manage the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network. [104]

Rankings Edit

Academic rankings
National
ARWU [105] 14
Forbes [106] 79
THE/WSJ [107] 39
U.S. News & World Report [108] 35
Washington Monthly [109] 9
Global
ARWU [110] 18
QS [111] 48
THE [112] 33
U.S. News & World Report [113] 21

National rankings Edit

UC San Diego is ranked 13th and 16th in the U.S. by Academic Ranking of World Universities [116] and Center for World University Rankings [117] respectively. Washington Monthly ranked the university 9th in its 2020 National University ranking, based on its contribution to the public good as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service. UC San Diego ranked fifth in the nation in terms of research and development expenditures in 2018, with $1.265 billion spent. [23] Kiplinger in 2014 ranked UC San Diego 14th out of the top 100 best-value public colleges and universities in the nation, and 3rd in California. [118] UC San Diego was ranked tied for 35th among national universities in the United States and tied for 8th among public universities by U.S. News & World Report's 2021 rankings. [119] Money magazine ranked UC San Diego 46th in the country out of the nearly 1500 schools it evaluated for its 2014 Best Colleges ranking. [120] ScienceWatch ranks UC San Diego 7th of federally funded U.S. universities, based on the citation impact of their published research in major fields of science and the social sciences and 12th globally by volume of citations. [121] [122]

Global rankings Edit

Recognized as a Public Ivy, UC San Diego is a highly regarded research institution, ranked 11th in the world by the Nature Index, [123] 14th in the world by the Scrimago Institutions Rankings, [124] 14th in the world by the Lens Metric, [125] 14th best university in the world according to TBS Rankings, [126] 16th in U.S. News & World Report 's 2017 global university rankings, [16] 15th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, [127] 16th best university in the world by the Centre for Science and Technology Studies of Leiden University Ranking, [128] 18th in the world by the Center for World University Rankings, [129] 18th in the world by University Ranking by Academic Performance, [130] and 5th best public university in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. [131]

The University of California San Diego is ranked 15th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, [116] and is ranked 17th "Best University in the World" by the Center for World University Rankings for 2016. [117] U.S. News & World Report named UC San Diego the 15th best university in the world for 2017 for research, global and regional reputation, international collaboration, and several highly cited papers. [16] In 2017, UC San Diego was ranked 30th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. [132] UC San Diego was also ranked 38th overall in the world, and 11th in biological sciences, 16th in life sciences, and medicine, 19th in economics and econometrics, 31st in mathematics, and 44th in computer science and information systems by QS World University Rankings. [133] In 2015, the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University named UC San Diego 16th in the world for scientific impact. [134]

Graduate school rankings Edit

The UC San Diego School of Medicine is ranked tied for 18th for research and 12th for primary care in the 2018 U.S. News & World Report rankings. [135] The Rady School of Management at UC San Diego is ranked 17th in the world for faculty research and 8th for alumni entrepreneurship in the 2014 Financial Times’ Global MBA. [136] In 2014 the Rady School ranked 1st in the nation in intellectual capital by Bloomberg Businessweek, which measured faculty research published in the top 20 business journals from 2009–2013. [137] UC San Diego was named 8th in the nation among doctoral institutions for the number of students who study abroad for a full academic year, according to the Institute of International Education Open Doors report. [138] Three doctoral programs at UC San Diego—biological sciences, bioengineering, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography—are 1st in the nation in the National Research Council's Data-Based Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs report. [139]

Departmental rankings Edit

Departmental rankings (including specialties) in the national top 10 according to the 2018 U.S. News & World Report Best Graduate Schools [140] report include biomedical engineering/bioengineering (2nd) neuroscience/neurobiology (2nd) biochemistry (10th) discrete mathematics and combinatorics (3rd) plasma physics (7th) econometrics (4th) public finance (8th) political science (9th) international politics (4th) comparative politics (4th) behavioral neuroscience (4th) cognitive psychology (8th) and time-based media/new media (3rd).

Departmental rankings in the global top 10 according to the 2015 U.S. News & World Report Best Graduate Schools report [141] include: biology and biochemistry (6th) molecular biology and genetics (8th) neuroscience and behavior (6th) pharmacology and toxicology (5th) and psychiatry and psychology (8th).

Departmental rankings in the global top 20 according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) [142] for 2015 include chemistry (18th) computer science (14th) and economics/business (19th). Since introduced in 2017, the ARWU Subject Rankings has ranked mechanical engineering at UC San Diego as the top (1st) public university program in the US (2017-2020). Mechanical engineering at UC San Diego has also consistently ranked as a top 5 US overall and a top 10 program worldwide since the introduction of subject rankings by ARWU. [143]

Departmental rankings in the global top 20 according to the QS World University Rankings for 2015 include earth and marine sciences (13th) [144] biological sciences (14th) [145] economics and econometrics (18th) [146] and pharmacy and pharmacology (20th). [147] Additional rankings within the global top 40 include politics and international studies (21st) [148] medicine (22nd) [149] mathematics (28th) [150] linguistics (31st) [151] and electrical engineering (34th). [152]

ScienceWatch placed UC San Diego 1st in social psychology, [153] 2nd in oceanography, [154] 3rd in international relations, [155] 5th in molecular biology and genetics, [156] [157] 17th in engineering, [158] and 18th in Neuroscience and Behavior [159] using non-survey, quantitative based metrics to determine research impact.

The Hollywood Reporter has ranked UC San Diego's graduate theatre program among the top ten drama schools in 2016 (6th), 2017 (5th), 2018 (4th), and 2019 (3rd), also ranking the undergraduate theatre program as one of the top five in the nation in 2018. [160] [161] [162] [163]

Admissions Edit

Fall Freshman Statistics [164] [165] [166] [167]
2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
Applicants 97,899 88,456 84,208 78,056 73,440 67,400 60,805
Admitted 29,577 30,204 30,028 26,509 24,595 24,832 22,963
Admit rate 30.2% 34.1% 36.0% 34.0% 33.5% 36.8% 37.8%
Enrolled NA NA 5,746 5,292 4,922 5,228 4,573
Average GPA NA NA 4.05 4.08 4.08 4.06 4.00
SAT range 1300-1520 NA 1750-2073 1800-2150 1760-2110 1750-2080 1750-2070
ACT range 28-34 26-31 26-31 27-32 26-32 26-31 26-31

UC San Diego is categorized by U.S. News & World Report as "most selective" for college admissions ratings within the United States. [168] For the Fall 2018 admissions cycle, the school received 118,372 applications from both freshman and transfer applicants, the second highest among the University of California campuses. [169] [170] Of those 118,372 applications, 97,899 applications were from prospective freshman with UC San Diego granting admission to just 29,577 applicants giving the institution an acceptance rate of 30.2% for the fall 2018 admission cycle. [171]

In 2009, UC San Diego mistakenly sent Admit Day welcome emails to all its 47,000 freshmen applicants, instead of just the 17,000 who had been admitted. [172] However, school officials quickly realized the mistake and sent an apology email within two hours. [173]

Graduate admissions are largely centralized through the Office of Graduate Studies. However, the Rady School of Management, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the School of Global Policy and Strategy (GPS) handle their own admissions. For Fall 2012, the UC San Diego School of Medicine offered admission to 5% of its applicants. [174]

Ethnic Enrollment, Fall [175]
Ethnicity 2020 Undergraduate 2016 Undergraduate 2020 Graduate 2016 Graduate
Black 3.0% 2.4% 2.6% 2.4%
Asian 37.4% 39.7% 17.7% 16%
White 19% 19.5% 26.6% 27.1%
Hispanic and Latino 20.8% 16.2% 8.3% 7.0%
Native American 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5%
Unreported/unknown 2.5% 2.6% 4.8% 8.0%
International 16.9% 19.2% 39.5% 39.2%

In all, the university offers classical orchestras, intramural sports, and over 550 student organizations. [176] [177] 38 national and local Greek organizations are hosted on campus, [178] with fraternity and sorority members representing 20% of the student population. [179] The university operates on an academic quarter system, with three primary quarters beginning in late September and ending in mid-June. [180] 44% of undergraduate students receive federal Pell Grants. [181]

The undergraduate student body government is the Associated Students of the University of California, San Diego, organized as a cabinet and senate, [182] [183] while graduate students are represented by the Graduate Student Association, a proportional representative body with membership depending on the number of students in each graduate department. [184] Additionally, graduate students who serve as teaching assistants are represented by the UC-wide union of Academic Student Employees. Each of the seven residential colleges has its own student council as well. Most student media publications distributed on-campus are services provided and governed by ASUCSD, including Triton TV, [185] a film studio and TV station, and the KSDT radio station. [186] A notable exception is The Guardian, which is directly governed by the university's Student Affairs department.

Price Center, often referred to as PC, is the main student hub and is located in the center of campus, just south of Geisel Library. The building houses multiple restaurants, the central bookstore, a movie theater, and office space for student organizations, organization advisers, and university faculty. [187] A student referendum was passed in 2003 to expand the Price Center to nearly double its original size. The Price Center East expansion was officially opened to the public on May 19, 2008. [188]

There are also three campus centers that cultivate a sense of community among faculty, staff, and certain students: the Cross-Cultural Center, the Women's Center, and the LGBT Resource Center. UC San Diego was the last UC campus to have such centers. All three, especially the Cross-Cultural Center that was created first, were founded in the mid-1990s as a result of student movements that demanded change despite opposition by the campus administration. [189]

The Ché Café is a student worker cooperative and social center that is perhaps best known for its role as a venue for underground music scene. [190] It is an on-and-off again vegan cafe and catering operation as well. The Ché also acts as a resource for the music and art departments on campus through hosting art shows, performances, and film screenings. Some of the most notable touring bands or musicians who have played at the Ché include: Bon Iver, Green Day, Rise Against, Jimmy Eat World, Matt & Kim, Billy Corgan, Blonde Redhead, Bomb the Music Industry!, The Get Up Kids, Deerhoof, Bright Eyes, Chumbawamba, Mike Watt, Hella, Dan Deacon, Unwound, and Jawbreaker. Prominent local San Diego bands such as The Locust and Pinback, and national tours such as Mates of State and The Dillinger Escape Plan have given the Ché Café some fame and praise as a radical vegan collective despite its small size and limited sound equipment. [191]

Traditions Edit

The student body government coordinates a wide variety of concerts and events during the year. UC San Diego begins the fall quarter with Welcome Week to introduce new students to campus clubs and activities, [192] starting the week with the All Campus Dance. The Hullabaloo music festival takes place every November as part of the university's Founders' Celebration. Bear Garden, a carnival held near Price Center, takes place every quarter throughout the year. Additionally, events are frequently held at the Loft, a performance lounge within Price Center. [193]

The Sun God Festival, named after the statue part of the Stuart Collection, is the largest and most significant event of the year, held annually in mid-May on the seventh week of the spring quarter. [ citation needed ] The festival has grown over its 30-year history into a 20,000 person event, featuring an eclectic mix of art, dance, and musical performances. Past performers have included: Kendrick Lamar, Porter Robinson, Macklemore, Silversun Pickups, Wiz Khalifa, Drake, T.I., Third Eye Blind, Ludacris, Michelle Branch, Sara Bareilles, The Roots, My Chemical Romance, and Joji. The 2017 festival featured ScHoolboy Q, DJ Mustard, Bad Suns, Manila Killa and Khalid. [194]

Two other popular campus traditions are the Pumpkin Drop and the Watermelon Drop, which take place during Halloween and at the end of the spring quarter, respectively. [195] The Watermelon Drop is one of the campus' oldest traditions, famously originating in 1965 from a physics exam question centering on the velocity on impact of a dropped object. A group of intrigued students pursued that line of thought by dropping a watermelon from the top floor of Revelle's Urey Hall to measure the distance from the splat to the farthest travelling piece of fruit. A variety of events surround the Watermelon Drop, including a pageant where an occasionally male but generally female "Watermelon Queen" is elected. The Pumpkin Drop is a similar event celebrated by the dropping of a large, candy-filled pumpkin from 11-story Tioga Hall, the tallest residential building on the Muir college campus.

Housing Edit

The seven undergraduate residential colleges have separate, unique housing facilities for their students. First-year students are usually housed in the residence halls while upperclassmen live in the college apartments. Transfer students are housed in separate facilities from the residential colleges, in an area called The Village at Pepper Canyon. [196] The housing facilities vary in design, though nearly all of them are of modern or brutalist style. The vast majority of entering freshmen and about 40 percent of all undergraduates in Fall 2012 chose to live in campus residence halls or apartments. [197] Graduate students can choose to live in one of six apartment complexes apart from undergraduate housing. [ citation needed ] Three of these facilities are several minutes away from UC San Diego while the remaining are located on university grounds. Each residential college comes with a separate unique philosophy, general education writing sequence and events on top of having separate housing facilities.

Scholarship, Leadership, and Service

International studies Making of the

Culture, art and technology

Wolftown Chocolate Festival,

Accommodations are made for students with specific needs. Undergraduate couples and families have the option of living in housing facilities that are normally available only to graduate students. [199] The university also dedicates a portion of its facilities for those who wish to live in gender-neutral or LGBT housing. [200] [201]

Reflecting UC San Diego's diversity, International House, a complex of apartments located in Eleanor Roosevelt College, is dedicated to cross-cultural exchange between American and international students, housing about 350 students from more than 30 countries. [202] International learning is fostered through formal programs including current affairs discussions, cultural nights, and a community newsletter. Upper-division undergraduates from all seven colleges, graduate students, faculty, and researchers are eligible to live in International House, located in the Eleanor Roosevelt College townhouses. Demand is very high for this special program and there is often a waitlist. Spaces in International House are not guaranteed and admission requires a separate application. [203]

Housing plans also offer students access to dining facilities, which were named by PETA as the most vegan-friendly in the United States. [204] Each student is allotted a certain number of "Dining Dollars" to purchase meals at any dining hall and groceries at any on-campus market. Distinct dining halls are located at each of the seven colleges, with markets located adjacent or near them, except at Eleanor Roosevelt College which shares a marketplace with Seventh College. In addition to the dining halls, there are also four specialty dining facilities and two food trucks on campus that accept dining dollars. UC San Diego currently offers two years guaranteed housing to both its incoming freshmen and its incoming transfer students. [205] The university intends to reach a capacity that will enable them to offer a four year housing guarantee.

Greek life Edit

UCSD boasts a large Greek community and supports several fraternities and sororities, each belonging to one of three different governing councils. Social fraternities belong to the Interfraternity Council, while social sororities belong to the Panhellenic Council. [206]

The university also sponsors a Multicultural Greek Council (MGC), which currently recognizes 8 fraternities and 7 sororities. [209]

Greek life at UCSD is unique in comparison to other universities in that Greek organizations do not have chapter houses. [210]

Men's sports Women's sports
Baseball Basketball
Basketball Cross Country
Cross Country Fencing
Fencing Rowing
Golf Soccer
Rowing Softball
Soccer Swimming & Diving
Swimming & Diving Tennis
Tennis Track & Field
Track & Field Volleyball
Volleyball Water Polo
Water Polo

On November 27, 2017, the university announced that its athletic programs have begun a 6-year transition process from NCAA Division II to Division I, where it will be a member of the Big West Conference. [211] As of 2017 most of UC San Diego's 23 intercollegiate varsity athletic teams still participate in Division II, 12-member California Collegiate Athletic Association, and some compete independently. The water polo, fencing, and men's volleyball teams compete as part of Division I conferences. [212] Before joining Division II in 2000, the school participated at the Division III level. [213] The teams compete at the university's RIMAC facility, Triton Ballpark, and RIMAC Arena. University of California, San Diego was ranked #1 among all NCAA D2 schools in the country and #40 overall (for all divisions), according to the Next College Student Athlete's 2018 NCSA Power Rankings. [214] The NCSA Power Rankings recognize the best colleges and universities in the U.S. for student-athletes. [215] UC San Diego athletics also ranked #1 in men's and women's soccer, women's volleyball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's swimming, men's and women's track and field, men's and women's tennis, men's golf, women's rowing, softball, and baseball, among all NCAA D2 schools. Additionally, UC San Diego ranked #1 in Men's Water Polo and Men's Volleyball among NCAA D1 schools. [216]

In all, the Tritons have won a total of 30 national championships in golf, soccer, softball, tennis, volleyball, and water polo. [217] The 2006–07 season was marked as UC San Diego's best since moving to Division II, with 19 athletic programs qualifying for post-season competition, including 17 for the NCAA Championships. Eight of those teams finished with a top five national ranking. [218]

Until 2007, UC San Diego was the only Division II school that did not offer athletic scholarships. In 2005, the NCAA created a rule that made it mandatory for all D-II programs to award athletic grants. Consequently, a measure was proposed to begin offering $500 "grants-in-aid" to all 600 intercollegiate athletes in order to meet this requirement. A student referendum was passed in February 2007, authorizing a $329 annual student fee to fund a raise in coaches' salaries, hire more trainers, and provide all athletes with a $500 scholarship. [219]

The athletic department considered a move to Division I in 2011. The student body would have needed to approve a doubling of student fees to allow the university to meet minimum scholarship requirements for D-I participation. However, students overwhelmingly rejected this measure in 2012, halting any efforts for a move to Division I at that time. [220]

On May 24, 2016, students at UC San Diego passed the vote to move their athletics to NCAA Division I. The school's newspaper, The Guardian, reported that voter turnout was 35 percent of the undergraduate population, when the measure only needed 20 percent to pass. [221]

The university offers 30 sports club teams, including badminton, baseball, cycling, dancesport, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby, sailing, soccer, snow skiing, tennis, volleyball, ultimate, water polo, and waterskiing. [222] The UC San Diego surf team has won the national championship six times and is consistently rated one of the best surfing programs in the United States. [223] UC San Diego does not have a football team. However, the university participated in intercollegiate football for one year during the 1968 season. The newly recruited Tritons lost all seven games that they played. [224]

Billy Beane
Owner of the Oakland Athletics, former professional MLB athlete, and known for his depiction in Moneyball (BA, Economics)

Khaled Hosseini
Physician known for setting forth medicine in Afghanistan for the George W. Bush administration, the United Nations, and production of novels such as The Kite Runner (MD, Medicine)

David J. Peterson
American language creator, writer, and artist, who has constructed languages for television and movies such as Thor: The Dark World, Doctor Strange, and the Dothraki and Valyrian languages for the television series Game of Thrones. (MA, Linguistics)

Milana Vayntrub
Uzbekistan-born American actress and comedian known for her roles in AT&T television commercials [Lily Adams (2013–2016, 2020-present)], Other Space (2015), This Is Us (2016–2017), and voicing Doreen Green / Squirrel Girl in the Marvel Rising franchise (BA, Communication)

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Timeline of San Diego History: 1930-1959

1930
City of San Diego population is 147,995. San Diego County population is 209,659.

January 5, 1931
Lemon Grove Grammar School principal Jerome Green, acting under instructions from school trustees, turns away Mexican children at the schoolhouse door. The landmark lawsuit resulting from the “Lemon Grove Incident” becomes the first successful school desegregation court decision in the history of the United States.

February, 1931
San Diego’s State Teachers’ College moves into the seven mission-style buildings of the present SDSU campus. In 1935, the Legislature removes the word “Teachers” from the name of the institution and, in 1960, the College becomes part of the newly created California State College system. It is renamed San Diego State University in 1971.

1932
Reuben H. Fleet moves Consolidated Aircraft (which becomes Convair) from Buffalo, New York. Fleet had organized the first U.S. Air Mail Service in 1918.

1933
The Natural History Museum opens in Balboa Park, designed by William Templeton Johnson.

1935
Consolidated Aircraft opens first plant along Pacific Highway to build 50 P-30 pursuit planes for Army. First PBY-1 is launched on test flight on San Diego bay in 1936 – Consair employment rises from 900 in 1935 to 3700.

May 28, 1935
California-Pacific International Exposition opens in Balboa Park. Chief architect Richard Requa has put Palisades buildings up in just a few months and completely remodeled the House of Hospitality.

1935
The Old Globe Theatre opens in Balboa Park (note the open air center).

1936
Bill Lane brings his Hollywood Stars baseball team to play in San Diego as the Pacific Coast League Padres. Lane field, at the corner of Broadway and Harbor Drive, is the home of the Padres from 1936-1957. Hoover High School’s Ted Williams plays ball with the Pacific Coast League Padres at Lane Field in 1936-37 before going on to win six American League batting titles for the Boston Red Sox.

1936
Construction of the Del Mar Fairgrounds begins as a Work Progress Authority project.

June 24, 1937
Richard Archbold makes first transcontinental flight from San Diego to New York City in a seaplane built by Consair. The following year the Archbold expedition sets off from San Diego on a global survey of potential oceanic and continental air routes (pilots Steve Barinka, Russell Rogers). It arrives back in San Diego on July 6, 1939 as the first around-the-world seaplane flight at the equator.

1938
San Diego Civic Center (now the County Administration Center) opens, designed by architect Samuel Wood Hamill. Sculptor Donal Hord’s monumental stone statue “Guardian of Water” still stands on the Harbor Drive side of the building.

March 12, 1938
Hitler occupies Austria.

Sept 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland and war breaks out in Europe.

1939
Naval Air Station, Miramar develops on the site of Camp Kearny. In 1939 the Navy took ownership of 423 acres of Camp Kearny and the field was commissioned Naval Auxiliary Air Station, Camp Kearny Feb. 20, 1943. By the end of the war, the base covered 1101 acres and all facilities were combined and commissioned as the Marine Corps Air Station, Miramar May 1, 1946. Expansion begins in 1951 to develop the base for jet aircraft and it is commissioned as United States Naval Air Station, Miramar on April 1, 1952. It becomes the Fighter Command for the Pacific Fleet in 1973, adding the “Top Gun” Flight School, and becomes the Airborne Early Warning Wing Command. In 1998, the Naval Air Station closes and it again becomes a Marine Corps Air Station. [courtesy of Prof. Steve Schoenherr]

1940
City of San Diego population is 203,341. San Diego County population is 289,348.

December 7, 1941
Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor.

1941
Robert Oscar Peterson opens his first drive-in restaurant called Oscar’s. (He later founds Jack In The Box in 1951.)

1941
Construction begins on Linda Vista defense housing project. The biggest construction job in SD’s history – McNeil and Zoss contract to build 3000 units in 300 days for $9,070,000.

1941
San Diego Naval Air Station begins training pilots for U.S. Air Force (a total of 31,400 during World War II).

1942
Navy acquires Rancho Santa Margarita for Camp Pendleton Marine base on 126,000 acres north of Oceanside.

1943
Consolidated Aircraft merges with Vultee to become Convair.

October 3, 1943
Hauser Creek fire in the Cleveland National Forest, leaves at least 9 firefighters dead (including 7 marines), 72 injuries and 10,000 acres burned.

1944
Navy begins emergency construction of aqueduct to bring Colorado River water to San Diego. San Diego County Water Authority is formed.

June 6, 1944
Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied western Europe begins in Normandy, France.

1945
Senate ratifies a treaty giving a portion of Colorado River water to Mexico.

1945
World War II ends. San Diego soon experiences recession.

1945
San Diego voters approve 2 million dollar bond issue to begin development of Mission Bay.

1946
San Diego assumes responsibility to finance completion of San Diego Aqueduct. Voters approve $2 million water bonds and annexation of County Water Authority to Metropolitan Water District.

1946
George White Marston dies at age of 95.

1947
San Diego Aqueduct opens, bringing first Colorado River water to San Diego.

1948
Palomar Observatory opens in June. Construction on the 200-inch mirror had begun in 1934.

1948
Sit-in at U.S. Grant Hotel to protest racial discrimination.

1949
San Diego’s last electric streetcar completes its run from Union Depot. “Fiesta Bahia” celebrates opening of Mission Bay Park.

1950
City of San Diego population is 333,865. San Diego County population is 556,808.

1951
Passenger service on San Diego & Arizona Railway is discontinued.

1951
Jack in the Box gets its start. Robert O. Peterson opens first drive-through restaurant at 63rd Street and El Cajon Boulevard. Peterson had previously operated Oscars.

1952
California Western University is founded at site of Tingley’s Theosophical Society on Point Loma.

1954
San Diego’s new Public Library opens.

1954
University of San Diego is founded in Linda Vista.

1956
General Dynamics takes over Convair. Campus in San Diego’s La Jolla area proposed for a University of California site.

1956
El Cortez Hotel adds the world’s first outside glass hydraulic elevator, designed by C.J. Paderewski.

June 11, 1957
First test of USAF Atlas A missile is launched, built in San Diego by Convair. First successful test firing occurs on Dec 17, 1957 (on the 54th anniversary of the Wright brothers’ first flight), the missile landing in the target area after a flight of some 500 miles. The first operational missile, the Atlas D, will serve for launching Mercury manned spacecraft into orbit. Atlas becomes the workhorse of the space program, launching John Glenn in Mercury 7 for the nation’s first manned orbital flight in 1962.

1957
Minor League Padres begin playing at Westgate Park in Mission Valley.

1957
Theodore Seuss Geisel, long-time La Jolla resident writing as Dr. Seuss, publishes “The Cat in the Hat”, changing the way American children learn to read. He had been given a 225-word list, with a challenge to develop a book which would improve children’s literacy. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1984 and two Academy Awards, Seuss was author and illustrator of 44 children’s books.

1958
Interstate Highway 8 opens in February, following ancient Indian trails through Mission Valley.

1958
Construction begins on San Diego’s second aqueduct.

1959
Billy Wilder’s feature film Some Like it Hot is filmed at the Hotel Del Coronado, starring Jack Lemmon, Marilyn Monroe, and Tony Curtis.

1959
Architect Lloyd Ruocco founds what will become Citizens Coordinate for Century 3 environmental group.


History

San Diego State University is the oldest higher education institution in San Diego.

Since its founding in 1897, the university has grown to become a leading public research university, and a federally-designated Hispanic-serving Institution. Each year, SDSU provides more than 36,000 students with the opportunity to participate in an academic curriculum distinguished by direct contact with faculty and an international emphasis that prepares them for a global future.

In The Beginning

Serving the San Diego region has always been a core part of SDSU’s mission.

Founded March 13, 1897, San Diego State University began as the San Diego Normal School, a training facility for elementary school teachers. Seven faculty and 91 students met in temporary quarters over a downtown drugstore before moving to a newly constructed 17-acre campus on Park Boulevard.

The curriculum was first limited to English, history and mathematics. Course offerings broadened rapidly under the leadership of first president, Samuel T. Black, who left his position as state superintendent of public instruction to become the new school's first president. Black served from 1898 to 1910.

From 1910 to 1935, SDSU President Edward L. Hardy headed a vigorous administration that oversaw major changes to the fledgling institution. In 1921, the Normal School became San Diego State Teachers College, a four-year public institution controlled by the state Board of Education. In that same year, the two-year San Diego Junior College, forerunner of today's local community colleges, became a branch of San Diego State Teachers College. That union lasted until 1946.

1931 Relocation

By the 1920s, the college was already beginning to outgrow its Park Boulevard location, and San Diegans launched a campaign to build a new campus on the city's eastern border.

In February 1931, students, faculty and staff moved into seven buildings surrounding a common area still known as the Main Quad.

SDSU's new campus on Montezuma Mesa in 1930.

Four years later, the state Legislature authorized expansion of degree programs beyond teacher education, and San Diego State Teachers College became San Diego State College. In 1935, Walter R. Hepner took the helm as SDSU president, beginning a 17-year tenure.

The college continued to grow over time, reaching an enrollment of more than 25,000 students during the administration of Malcolm A. Love, who served as president from 1952 to 1971. The SDSU Library is named after Love.

The SDSU Library is named after Malcolm A. Love, who served as SDSU president from 1952 to 1971.

In 1959, what is now known as SDSU Imperial Valley was founded on the original site of the first Calexico High School.

In 1960, San Diego State College became part of the newly created California State College system, now known as The California State University system.

In 1963, just months before he was assassinated, U.S. President John F. Kennedy gave the commencement address at San Diego State College. President Kennedy received the university's first honorary doctorate – also the first in the CSU system.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy giving the 1963 SDSU Commencement address.

In the early 1970s, with legislative approval, San Diego State College became San Diego State University.

Leading the university during the 1970s were Acting President Donald E. Walker (1971-1972), President Brage Golding (1972-1977), Acting President Trevor Colbourn (1977-1978) and President Thomas B. Day, whose tenure spanned 1978 to 1996.

Day championed the teacher-scholar model for faculty and promoted research across campus. His vision led the way for new areas of exploration and an increase in research grants and contracts awarded to SDSU faculty.

In 1996, Stephen L. Weber became the university's seventh president, presiding over the university's significant gains in student preparation and graduation, study abroad, philanthropy, research and other areas of excellence.

Elliot Hirshman served as president of San Diego State University from 2011 to June 30, 2017 – a period in which SDSU raised its profile as a major public research university. SDSU created a new strategic plan, raised over $800 million for scholarships and new initiatives and programs, established and endowed the Susan and Stephen Weber Honors College, and built and remodeled facilities across campus.

Former SDSU presidents Stephen L. Weber, Elliot Hirshman and Thomas B. Day.

Sally Roush – a former senior vice president at SDSU – began her term as interim president on July 1, 2017. She is the first woman to be named president of San Diego State University.

On Jan. 31, it was announced that Adela de la Torre, vice chancellor for student affairs and campus diversity at University of California, Davis, would become the university's ninth president in late June 2018, and the first woman to be named permanent president of SDSU.

Under the charge of SDSU President Adela de la Torre came the development of SDSU Mission Valley, SDSU Imperial Valley's expansion and a new, 5-year strategic plan.

In her first several years as president, de la Torre is credited with leading new initiatives that leverage the university’s historic legacy to elevate the campus into a new era of excellence. Under de la Torre’s tenure, the university launched a new, 5-year strategic plan, saw record increases in philanthropy, diversified the university’s funding and auxiliary sources to balance revenue streams and expanded investments in SDSU Imperial Valley. The university also saw improvements in student retention and graduation rates and closed equity gaps across several categories through expanded investments in advising, innovative use of virtual technologies, support programs, student aid initiatives, health and well-being offerings and other efforts.

De la Torre led the university through its response plan during the COVID-19 pandemic, launching and sustaining SDSU Flex, a flexible repopulation, instruction and business continuity plan.

The purchase, groundbreaking and initial construction of SDSU Mission Valley also began under de la Torre’s tenure. A critical component of SDSU Mission Valley is the innovation district, which is important to growing the university’s already unique status as a high research-activity, community-engaged, border-connected, emerging R-1 institution.


University of San Diego - History

This guide has been assembled with an eye towards clinical relevance. It represents a departure from the usual physical exam teaching tools which, in their attempts to be all inclusive, tend to de-emphasize the practical nature of patient care. As a result, students frequently have difficulty identifying what information is truly relevant, why it's important and how it applies to the actual patient. By approaching clinical medicine in a pragmatic and demystified fashion, the significance of the material should be readily apparent and the underlying principles more clearly understood. In particular:

  1. Each section is constructed to answer the question: "What do I really need to know about this area of medical care?" The material covered is presented in a concise, ordered fashion that should be readily applicable to the common clinical scenarios that you will actually see in day to day practice. Esoterica has been purposely excluded.
  2. The Web-Based format allows for easy access to information and provides integration of text, pictures, and sound.
  3. Exam techniques are described in step-by-step detail. Special maneuvers that are frequently utilized are also described.
  4. The rationale for each aspect of the examination is addressed and, where appropriate, relevant pathophysiology discussed.
  5. Detailed descriptions of how to function in clinical settings are included. In general, students identify their role in patient care either by trial and error or through the beneficence of more advanced students, residents or staff. This is not particularly efficient and diminishes the potential for learning and fun. The following sections are included to specifically address this issue:
    1. Oral presentations
    2. Patient write-ups
    3. Working in outpatient clinics
    4. Functioning on an inpatient service
    5. Clinical decision making

    I hope that this site helps to make the educational process both fun and rewarding. As the skills required of a physician cannot be learned from any single source, I encourage you to make use of as many other references as possible. This should reinforce basic principles and alert you to the fact that there are often many ways of achieving the same end (i.e. there is frequently no single right way of doing something). What follows, then, serves merely as an introduction. I have tried to capture those core behaviors that define clinical excellence and will have prolonged applicability, even in a technology driven world. The learning process continues (I hope) until the day you stop practicing medicine. There are always new techniques to learn and unusual findings to incorporate into your personal libraries of medical experience. However, unless you take the time to build a solid foundation, you will never have confidence in the accuracy and value of what you can uncover with a sharp mind, agile fingers and a few simple tools!

    Please Note: Medical and non medical practitioners are welcome to use this site for learning purposes. However, it is not meant as a substitute for appropriate evaluation of medical conditions or pursuit of an advanced education through traditional mechanisms. While the authors welcome feedback and comments, please do not solicit medical advice.

    We've just updated the interface/look of our site for the first time since it's creation. Our hope is that this new look is easier to navigate and more appealing visually. The core content has not changed. We welcome feedback.


    UC San Diego has a proud tradition of academic and athletic excellence. One of the top NCAA Division II programs in the country, intercollegiate athletics provides students with one of the more extensive and competitive sports programs in the United States. UC San Diego has won 136 individual national championships, and a remarkable 1,169 student-athletes have been named to All-America teams. The campus also fields several club sports teams, and an intramural program that provides athletic competition in a wide variety of sports. Go to http://ucsdtritons.com or http://recreation.ucsd.edu.

    UC San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr. La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534-2230
    Copyright © 2021 Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.



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