History Podcasts

History of Yalding : Student Activity

History of Yalding : Student Activity


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Subject MatterInformation Sheets
1. Yalding Village in 1336Village of Yalding
Yalding in 1336
Medieval Houses
2. Yalding and the Feudal SystemYalding in 1336
Rent and Taxes
Feudal Services
Manor Court
3. Details of your parentsFamily Details
4. Problems of bad harvestsYalding in 1336
Harvesting
The Farming Year
Weather and Harvest
5. The war with FranceThe Hundred Years' War
6. The new lord of the manorEarl of Stafford
7. The pestilenceDisease in the 14th Century
Yalding Church
8. Restrictions on wagesStatute of Labourers Act
9. Death of your parentsFamily Details
10. Visit of John BallJohn Ball
11. The Poll TaxTaxation in the 14th Century
12. The Peasants RevoltRebellion
Peasants' Revolt Chronology
Death of Wat Tyler
Punishment of the Peasants
13. The end of the feudal systemDecline of Feudalism

Lesson Plan: KS4 history, crime and punishment

At first sight, the 18th century can appear to students as one of the harshest, most bloody periods of British judicial history, especially once they are shown the well-trodden ground of the list of crimes punishable by death by the end of the century. Even the name assigned to laws of this period – The Bloody Code – evokes a sense of foreboding, but there are questions to be answered. What was the Bloody Code? What attitudes and factors led to the Bloody Code? Did it work? Compared to other periods, how ‘bloody’ was it? In this lesson, students will use archive materials to help them to answer those questions. It can serve as part of an introduction to punishment in the period 1700-1900, covering punishment in the 18th century and can be easily extended into a series of lessons examining crimes, punishments and changes.

Starter activity

Share with pupils an image and short introduction to Henry Fielding, founder of the Bow Street Runners. Then share a transcript of Henry Fielding’s feelings about law and order in London (tinyurl.com/d3sd6zs). Depending on the ability of your students you may need to adapt the transcript to enable understanding.

Q: What does this suggest about the types of crimes being committed in London and other large cities like it?

Q: What does it suggest about changes that have taken place over the last century?

Q: What does this suggest about his attitudes towards crime at this time?

Q: What does this suggest about the crime rate?

Explain to the class that it will now be their job, using contemporary evidence that will be at their disposal, to test out whether something like the Bloody Code laws might act as a suitable deterrent against law-breaking.

Main Activities

By 1815 there were c.225 crimes punishable by death. Make a set of cards giving brief details of those that you find interesting (you can use as many as you like, but 10-15 will be ample to keep up a fast momentum and illustrate the point). Dish out the cards to various students. In turn, ask students with cards to stand before the court and read out their crime. The students then become the court and have to decide upon the punishment they will deal out via a vote. The four corners and other areas of the room can be set up to represent the main types of punishment at their disposal. Students should decide which punishment they think each crime deserves and send the card bearer to the relevant part of the room. Once all students have been distributed, discuss what questions and issues the students’ decisions have raised:

Q: Why did they make these decisions?

Reveal the truth that all of these crimes were punishable by death and move all of the card bearing students to the condemned cell area of the room.

Q: What problems did this kind of code bring about?

Why might some of these crimes have been punishable by death? What can this tell us about the attitudes of people making the laws and society at this time?

Students should use the Old Bailey Archive (tinyurl.com/cwzg3cg) and court archives from Durham Assizes (tinyurl.com/d432mje) to investigate an example of The Bloody Code. Students will use the punishment rolls from 1786 to plot the types of crimes against the types of punishment dished out. This information can be recorded in any way you like, but a graph can provide an excellent visual guide. Students should compare the evidence of the court sentences with the types of crimes punishable by death they saw earlier and ask the following questions of the evidence:

Q: What punishments were dealt out? For which crimes?

Q: Which crimes received the death penalty?

Q: What percentage of the total listed received the death penalty?

Q: How do these death sentences compare to the crimes punishable by death that have already been seen?

3: How “bloody” was the bloody code?

There are two key issues for students to consider about the Bloody Code:

2. How did punishments compare to other periods?

A) Students should use the Old Bailey Archive to delve a little deeper into the crimes of 1786 (http://tinyurl.com/csd9sk). If you have plenty of time, you can extend this into a lesson in itself by teasing out some of the stories of the people involved (the case of Margaret Dawson is an interesting one to explore.) Students should use the search facility to research one single crime as an example. As theft was high priority, this is the example I like to use. Ask students to search the year 1786 for grand larceny, but each time changing the sentence that they are searching for (for ease, I ask students to click on all sub-categories for each type of punishment rather than searching each one individually). Ask them to note how many different punishments were given to the same crime and how widely these punishments varied. (Hint – if they click on calculate total, the page will tell them how many people under their search criteria received that sentence in that year)

Q What does this tell us about how consistently sentences were applied?

Q What was the most popular punishment for grand larceny in 1786?

Q Why might this have been?

B) Now split the class in half. One half of the class should access Yalding Manorial Court Records for 1334/5 (tinyurl.com/d6pyu3v) and the other half should access the Old Bailey archives and the Durham archive (tinyurl.com/cjuhpdp) once again, and search this time for the year 1836. Students should re-use their graphs that they made previously and plot the types of crimes committed against the punishments dealt out. If students are working in groups, it is a good idea to save the Old Bailey archives for more able students as by 1836, there are no punishment summaries as found in 1786, so students will instead have to carry out a statistical analysis plotting a table by offence and punishment (tinyurl.com/bpq9snj). I’ve created an example to illustrate the process, which you can find at tinyurl.com/booqudd. Students can use the data from the tables they create to interpret changes and add to their graphs.

Home learning

1. A written piece asking students to examine how bloody the bloody code was or asking students to examine why the Bloody Code did not work.

2. Further research into the punishments dealt by courts like The Old Bailey using their website and others. Can students find other court archives? Research particular cases from the years studied using the Old Bailey website. Use them to create a game relating to Crime and Punishment and the Bloody Code.

Summary

Class discussion: Remind students of the initial question: How bloody was the Bloody Code? Students should consider that it was the sheer number of crimes that carried the death penalty and the fact that many of these were petty that was the issue, not necessarily its success, being that sentences were inconsistent and that there were also a number of similarities with other periods that have not been historically dubbed in the same way. Students should also consider the factors that influenced the law making of this period. Finally, students should also put their judgments in the context of their evidence, being that they have considered only a very small sample.

Info bar

There are a whole host of opportunities to stretch students further through working with archives like this. as one delves further into this fascinating archive, not only are you reminded that these are part of the life stories of real people, but also you find a real feel for the sense of the period. why not ask students to use some of the real stories from the old bailey website, plus further research to write their own historically accurate fiction or dramatic piece?

For those that are logically or mathematically minded, you might ask for a bit of additional number crunching and statistical work to be carried out over both the period in question and others, for example, the percentage of death sentences over the entire century as a percentage of the total crimes reported, the percentages of different crimes as an expression of the century total, a statistical comparison of different time periods, or combining several different variables…the possibilities are endless for the mathematics whizz and can provide the class with some excellent statistical data.

Historical association crime and punishment podcasts - tinyurl.com/d366377

About the expert

Mel Jones is very lucky in her role that she gets to work with experts in history education, teachers and students alike. Mel likes nothing more than seeing the students get a buzz from what they do through enquiry and using primary sources and archives.


Early history Edit

The name Wateringbury, like many of the nearby parishes (such as West Malling, Barming, Farleigh), is an Anglo-Saxon name, meaning "The fortification (bury) of the people (ing) of Othere (Water)". [2]

Wateringbury's existence is first documented in the 10th century will of Bihtric and Aelfswith and in the early 11th-century obligation recorded in the Textus Roffensis to maintain part of Rochester Bridge. [3] The settlement had a detached 'den', used in autumn to feed pigs on acorns and nuts, in the forested Weald of Kent at Lilly Hoo, which remained a part of the parish for secular matters until the 19th century (and for ecclesiastical matters until the 20th century).

In 1066, as recorded by the Domesday Book of 1086, Wateringbury consisted of two manors owned respectively by Leofeva and Godil, both Anglo-Saxon women with land-holdings elsewhere. [4] By 1086, they were replaced by incoming Normans, Ralph son of Thorold and Hugh de Brebouef, both of whom held the manor from Bishop Odo of Bayeux. There were 30 heads of household (including villagers, small-holders and slaves) recorded in the Domesday Book at the two manors, which might imply a total population of about 150 people including children. Three mills were recorded, one which still exists and another which was in existence until the early 20th century.

A Church is also mentioned in the Domesday Book. A stone church dedicated to St. John the Baptist (a popular late Anglo-Saxon dedication) stands in Wateringbury. The chancel and tower of the current church building date from the 13th century. [5] However, the current church is probably on the same site as the Anglo-Saxon church.

Medieval Period Edit

Adjacent to the church, Wateringbury Place is the largest house in the village and in medieval times the largest estate. It was completely rebuilt in 1707 by the Style family, reputedly 200 yards from a former moated building. The Style family owned Wateringbury Place from the early 17th century to the early 19th (returning in 1945 until 1978) they were made baronets in 1627 and the Style family still holds the title of baronet of Wateringbury. Two houses of medieval origin still exist, the Pelicans, and the Wardens, and several other houses have 16th century origins.

From the two estates of the Domesday Book there developed four medieval manors with their own manor courts: [6] Chart, Canons and Westbury as well as Wateringbury Place. Chart was in the area now called Pizien Well and a mace called the Dumb Borsholder, now hanging in the Church, is associated with this manor. A right to hold a market in Wateringbury was granted in 1311 by royal charter. An 18th century local antiquarian, Edward Greensted, says the market was probably held in Chart. Canons was owned by the Prior and Canons of Leeds until the Reformation. Westbury was a small manor owned by a family of that name.

Modern Period Edit

By the late seventeenth century Wateringbury’s population had doubled from its Domesday Book level and by the time of the first census in 1801 the population was 817 it continued to grow rapidly in the first half of the 19th century (to 1,448 in 1851) before falling in the second half (to 1,316 in 1901), reflecting the general national trend of urbanisation. Wateringbury was an early mover amongst the immediately surrounding parishes in subsidising emigration in the 1830s to help relieve poverty with financial assistance being given for emigration to Canada in 1832 and to Australia in 1838. [7]

During the 19th and early 20th centuries there were major temporary influxes of hoppers in September of each year. In 1900 the vicar, Greville Livett, estimated that there had been 3,300 such ‘immigrants’ including their children.

Wateringbury benefited from the work in the period 1740 to 1747 of the Medway Navigation Company (MNC) in making the River Medway navigable above Maidstone, and so available for the transport of bulky cargos. [8] The medieval stone bridge was replaced by a wooden one as part of the MNC's mid-18th century navigation improvements, which was in turn replaced in 1914. The Maidstone-Tonbridge turnpike, authorised by Act of Parliament in 1765/6, [9] came through the village. In 1844 the Medway valley railway line gave it an alternative transport link for passengers and cargo.

The tithe survey of 1839 [10] provides a snapshot in time of the village and its economic activity at least as far as agriculture goes. Arable farming covered 26% of the parish and woods, mainly coppiced sweet chestnut, covered 20%. Hops covered 14% and fruit 10%. However, the acreage of hops subsequently expanded and, as a cash crop, it brought wealth to the village, although the annual influx of temporary labour also brought social problems.

Two breweries, the Phoenix Brewery of the Leney family and the Kent Brewery of the Jude and Hanbury families, developed in the village in the 18th century and only closed in the late 20th. In the second half of the 19th century, Leney became internationally renowned as a breeder of shorthorn cattle with individual specimens reaching astronomical prices (2,000 guineas for a single animal in 1874) at auctions held in the village with exports to the US and New Zealand.

In the 1820s Matthias Lucas, Lord Mayor of London in 1827, a self-made man who became extremely wealthy from commerce, acquired Wateringbury Place. During his residence he brought was very active in village affairs, building several substantial houses (The Red House, The Beck, The Thatched House, The Limes and The Orpines) on the Wateringbury Place estate for rent. He also represented the village's interests to Parliamentary inquiries about the navigation of the Medway and the fruit trade. He died in 1848, and his grandson split and sold the estate in 1876.

Another Lord Mayor of London, Horatio Davies, owned Wateringbury Place by 1897, the year of his Lord Mayorship. [11] He was an art lover and a discriminating purchaser of pictures, and filled the house with famous works of art and antique silverware. [12]

In the nineteenth century, Wateringbury is recorded as having several small private boarding schools, and in 1843 a public National School. There was also an explosion of sports and other clubs and activities in the nineteenth century. The societies included: an Amicable Benefit Society the Oddfellows Boys Brigade and Scouts horticultural and drama societies. A Working Men’s Club was established in 1887 with considerable support from the local gentry. A series of annual rowing regattas held on the Medway in the 1860s and 1870s attracted large numbers of people each year to Wateringbury to view, with special trains laid on a silver Wateringbury regatta cup is still awarded each year at the National Schools regatta.

Twentieth Century Edit

The First World War impacted the village, like many others, through 41 deaths representing about 12% of men of military age. The vicar reported that as a result of the shortage of male hop pickers, the children involved were much more rowdy than in previous years.

Between the wars a major fire in 1927 caused 4 deaths at Wateringbury Hall and attracted much national and international attention.

The Second World War saw child evacuees from Woolwich attend school in the village bombing as a result of the proximity of West Malling airfield 3 deaths in the village from V1 "Doodle Bugs" (2 military personnel at Wateringbury Place and 1 civilian on Manor Farm) and the housing of prisoners of war in the village.

The second half of the 20th century saw a resurgence of population growth provided for by new housing developments, partly on the sites previously occupied by the two breweries, both of which closed. They had previously been taken over by a national brewer following the trend at the time for consolidating breweries.

In the 21st century, Wateringbury has a village hall, a primary school [13] the railway station, several pubs and a few shops.

Most of the village and Wateringbury Place are a designated Conservation Area. [14] In 2017 a series of blue plaques were installed in the village by the Wateringbury Local History Society those commemorated include Admiral Sir Henry Ruthven Moore, Dame Ellen Terry, Lena, Lady Login and William Rutter Dawes. [15]

Wateringbury compared
2001 UK Census Wateringbury Tonbridge and Malling district England
Population 2,015 107,561 49,138,831
Foreign born 3.7% 4.6% 9.2%
White 98.8% 98.3% 90.9%
Asian 0.5% 0.7% 4.6%
Black 0% 0.1% 2.3%
Christian 77.9% 76.1% 71.7%
Muslim 0.2% 0.3% 3.1%
Hindu 0.3% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 13.6% 15% 14.6%
Unemployed 2% 1.9% 3.3%
Retired 13.9% 14.2% 13.5%

At the 2001 UK census, the Wateringbury electoral ward had a population of 2,015. The ethnicity was 98.8% white, 0.6% mixed race, 0.5% Asian, 0% black and 0.1% other. The place of birth of residents was 96.3% United Kingdom, 0.5% Republic of Ireland, 1% other Western European countries, and 2.2% elsewhere. Religion was recorded as 77.9% Christian, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.3% Hindu, 0.2% Sikh, 0.2% Jewish, and 0.2% Muslim. 13.6% were recorded as having no religion, 0.2% had an alternative religion and 7.5% did not state their religion. [16]

The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 43.9% in full-time employment, 12.1% in part-time employment, 10.3% self-employed, 2% unemployed, 2.5% students with jobs, 3.2% students without jobs, 13.9% retired, 7.1% looking after home or family, 2.8% permanently sick or disabled and 2.2% economically inactive for other reasons. The industry of employment of residents was 15.7% retail, 12.1% manufacturing, 7% construction, 15.6% real estate, 11.5% health and social work, 6.4% education, 6.4% transport and communications, 6.6% public administration, 3% hotels and restaurants, 8.5% finance, 1.7% agriculture and 5.5% other. Compared with national figures, the ward had a relatively high proportion of workers in finance, and a relatively low proportion in hotels and restaurants. Of the ward's residents aged 16–74, 23.1% had a higher education qualification or the equivalent, compared with 19.9% nationwide. [16]


Contents

Early documentation shows the name of Coxheath as Cokkyshoth (1422 [3] & 1489) and Coxhoth (1585). [4] The nearby Cock Inn (founded 1568) [5] may point to its etymology.

Early history Edit

Although there is little evidence of early settlement, nearby Boughton Monchelsea was the site of a Roman quarry.

In the 16th century, the strategic position of the ridge determined its choice for one of the sites in the network of beacons erected in the year of the Armada of 1588. The first known site of a beacon was on the ridge near what are known today as Amsbury Road and Westerhill Road.

Military Influence Edit

Aside from this, until the eighteenth century the heath was a deserted tract of land that was the haunt of highwaymen. During the 1720s the land started to be used as a venue for cricket matches, becoming known as Coxheath Common cricket ground. This remained the area's main use until 1756, when, with the start of the Seven Years' War, it suddenly became a huge military camp, with 12,000 Hanoverian and Hessian troops quartered there.

Its former sinister reputation soon gave way to a new one - for the number of duels to be fought there, usually over the ladies of nearby Maidstone. The county town had mixed views about the camp. The business community was inclined, on the whole, to be forbearing about the disadvantages, but feelings ran high once or twice between Maidstone Corporation and the military authorities about which should exercise the right to punish soldiers who misbehaved themselves in the town's confines.

Inspired by the Prussian army of Frederick the Great which carried out manoeuvres whereby units "fought" against each other and who became the standard by which other European armies measured themselves, the British decided to hold mock battles themselves. Motivated at the time by fear of invasion from France, a number of training camps were established in southern England to allow raw militia and regular troops to train for what seemed an inevitable clash. One site chosen was Coxheath.

The Westminster Magazine covered the events at one such camp held there during the summers of 1778 and 1779. By all accounts, this camp was on a massive scale involving 17,000 troops as well as civilians, many representing the 700 retailers who had come from London to service the soldiers. [6] On 18 September 1778 a mock battle was held on Barming Heath with the Grenadiers, Light Infantry and Dragoons involved.

The camp was the scene of several big reviews of troops by visiting dignitaries, including one by the King himself, George III, and his Queen Charlotte in 1778. The king made it an occasion to knight the Mayor of Maidstone, William Bishop, before he left, which probably did something to reduce the friction between the camp and the nearby town. The last important cricket match was played in 1789, the year of the French Revolution.

It is believed that the nursery rhyme "The Grand old Duke of York", was set in the barracks and the hill involved was one of Linton Hill, Westerhill or Vanity Lane. Soon after the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, most of the troops were discharged. The army encampment was closed in 1815 by an Act of Parliament and then in 1817 the heath was enclosed by local landowners, removing the right of villagers to use it.

Heath Road (now designated as the B2163) which bisects the village, runs in an absolutely straight line for over 2 miles (although the majority of this section of the road resides within neighbouring Boughton Monchelsea and Linton). The very straight course of this road is the direct result of work by the military engineers. [7]

Coxheath Union Edit

The enactment of the new Poor Law in 1834, led to the creation of the "Coxheath Poor Law Union" in 1835, more commonly known simply as the Coxheath Union. This union also involved many of the other local parishes. A reluctant Maidstone was finally coerced into joining in 1836, [8] bringing the number of parishes involved to 15 and leading to the union's name being officially changed to the Maidstone Union (although contemporary references appear to show that the Coxheath Union name remained in general use).

The Maidstone Union Workhouse was built in 1836 at a site to the south of Heath Road, replacing a smaller workhouse built near the junction of Heath Road and Stockett Lane in 1771. [9] [10] By the mid-19th century when Kent was producing half of the entire national crop and something like 50,000 acres (200 km 2 ) were under cultivation, thousands of Londoners were travelling into Kent in search of work in the hop gardens. Eventually, supply outstripped demand and many arrived in the countryside only to be told they were not required. Hungry and destitute, they threw themselves on the mercy of the union house-keepers. In 1867 the workhouse was home for 600 to 700 people. [11]

20th century Edit

The modern civil parish was created in 1964 from areas formerly within the parishes of East Farleigh and Linton (and to a lesser extent areas from Hunton and Loose), [12] the timing coinciding with large scale housing developments in the village.

The old workhouse was incorporated into Linton Hospital, though this, in the mid-1990s, finally closed and was demolished.

Perhaps the most distinctive landmark in Coxheath is the Holy Trinity church, built in 1884 as the chapel to the workhouse and latterly the former Linton Hospital. It became the Parish church for the village in 1996 following the hospital's closure and falls under the Diocese of Rochester. [13]

A replica beacon bearing the village's coat of arms celebrates the area's role as a signal bonfire site since the time of the Armada stands on the side of the Heath Road opposite the Bird in Hand public house. The original beacon, and its first replica, were blown down and replaced.

The twinning of La Séguinière and Coxheath was born from a meeting of representatives from the two villages in 1995. It was formalized by La Séguinière in 2003 and by Coxheath in 2004. Its main objective is to promote linguistic and cultural exchanges between the two villages.

Alternating between the two municipalities, a meeting is held each year. The proposed association also aims to foster placements for young people in England and France. [14]

The current parish chairman is Mr Clive Parker. Coxheath is part of the parliamentary constituency of Maidstone and the Weald, whose Member of Parliament as of May 2010 is Helen Grant of the Conservative Party. Prior to Brexit in 2020, it was represented by the South East England constituency for the European Parliament.

The village sits on the very southern edge of the greensand ridge that runs through Kent. To the north the land descends gently into the Medway valley. To the south there is a steeper descent down into the Low Weald.

Coxheath compared
2001 UK Census Coxheath ward Maidstone (non-metropolitan district) England
Population 3,856 138,948 49,138,831
Foreign born 3.2% 4.6% 9.2%
White 98.7% 98.3% 90.9%
Asian 0.2% 0.7% 4.6%
Black 0.3% 0.1% 2.3%
Christian 80.6% 76.1% 71.7%
Muslim 0.2% 0.3% 3.1%
Hindu 0.1% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 11.9% 15% 14.6%
Unemployed 2% 1.9% 3.3%
Retired 17.1% 14.2% 13.5%

At the 2001 UK census, the Coxheath electoral ward had a population of 3,856 in 1,582 households, of whom 3,732 (96.8%) were British by birth. In terms of ethnicity, 98.7% described themselves as white, with 0.5% mixed, 0.2% Asian or Asian British, 0.3% Black or Black British and 0.4% Chinese or other ethnic group. Religion was recorded as 80.6% Christian, 0.2% Muslim, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.1% Hindu. 11.9% were recorded as having no religion, 0.4% had an alternative religion and 6.7% did not state their religion. Of the 3,120 adults (aged 16 and over), the socio-economic breakdown by NRS social grade found 1,631 people fell into the ABC1 category and 1,489 people into the C2DE grouping.

The economic activity of the 2,792 residents aged 16–74 was 43.6% in full-time employment, 14.1% in part-time employment, 8.8% self-employed, 2.0% unemployed, 1.9% students with jobs, 2.9% students without jobs, 17.1% retired, 5.3% looking after home or family, 2.7% permanently sick or disabled and 1.8% economically inactive for other reasons. The industry of employment of residents was 19.3% retail, 12.3% manufacturing, 11.3% real estate, 11.2% health and social work, 10.5% construction, 7.3% transport and communications, 6.6% education, 5.8% finance, 5.2% public administration, 2.9% hotels and restaurants, 1.9% agriculture and 5.7% other. [15]

The village is served by bus services provided by Arriva. It does not have a railway station. The nearest station is East Farleigh on the Medway Valley Line. The closest mainline services are via Maidstone East to the north (serving London and Ashford/Canterbury/Ramsgate ) or Staplehurst and Marden to the south on the Southeastern Main Line.

In February 2015 Coxheath Primary School had 308 pupils aged between 4 and 11. [16] Secondary education is provided by schools elsewhere in the Maidstone area.


Yalding - Historic Photos and Maps of Yalding area

Current copyright free photos of the Yalding area

Historic Images of Paddock Wood Primary School area if available

This Microportal is built on the 2day Microportals platform which provides you with 3 click access to local and global information crucial both to your personal and working life. The platform provides live local data on transport, what's on, accommodation, eating out, shopping, sport, religion and weather as well as comprehensive reference and resource sections including TV, radio, online shopping, route planning, health, education and more.

We are not responsible for the content of external internet sites to which any 2day supported sites are linked. We do not share any contact information with other providers. We use cookies to make our site work efficiently. More information on privacy and cookies.

Copyright © 2004� 2day Microportals, East Quither Farm, Milton Abbot, Tavistock, Devon, PL19 0PZ, UK.


History of Yalding : Student Activity - History

Learn actively by finding out how vaccines work, how vaccines are made, how to visualize risk, and more. Click through these activities to explore the past, present, and future of vaccination and infectious disease.

See how high vaccination rates protect the unvaccinated.

Find out how the U.S. immunization schedule has changed over time.

See the steps involved in manufacturing vaccines.

Learn about the human immune system’s response to vaccination. Then sequence the steps in the process on your own.

Learn how scientists identify the cause of an infectious disease.

Match the scientist to the disease he helped prevent.

You're in the middle of a disease outbreak. Apply the scientific method in an epidemiological setting to pinpoint the source of the illness.

Explore the features of attenuated, inactivated, subunit, and conjugate vaccines.


Young People's Health Info

How much will it cost?

Going to university or college is one of the biggest investments you can make - how much it is going to cost you and what help is available?
Most students do not need to pay any tuition fees up-front, as these are covered by a Tuition Fee Loan. There are also Maintenance Grants and loans to help with living costs, such as rent, food, books, transport and entertainment. Further information can be found on Directgov.

For an independent view of what it costs and what the new student finance arrangements mean for you, visit www.moneysavingexpert.com

This Microportal is built on the 2day Microportals platform which provides you with 3 click access to local and global information crucial both to your personal and working life. The platform provides live local data on transport, what's on, accommodation, eating out, shopping, sport, religion and weather as well as comprehensive reference and resource sections including TV, radio, online shopping, route planning, health, education and more.

We are not responsible for the content of external internet sites to which any 2day supported sites are linked. We do not share any contact information with other providers. We use cookies to make our site work efficiently. More information on privacy and cookies.

Copyright © 2004� 2day Microportals, East Quither Farm, Milton Abbot, Tavistock, Devon, PL19 0PZ, UK.


  1. On your computer, go to drive.google.com.
  2. On the left click My Drive.
  3. In the upper right, click Info .
  4. To see recent changes, click Activity.
  5. To see the activity of a specific file or folder, click the file or folder.
  6. To see older changes, scroll down on the right side.

Only the most recent versions of past documents will be saved, unless you click Keep forever.

Download recent versions

You can download and keep old copies of PDF files, images, and other files stored in Google Drive.

  1. On your computer, go to drive.google.com.
  2. Click on the file you want to download.
  3. At the top right, click More .
  4. Click Manage versions.
  5. Next to the version you want to download, click More .
  6. To save a copy to your computer, click Download.

Upload a new version

  1. On your computer, go to drive.google.com.
  2. Click on the file you want to replace.
  3. At the top right, click More .
  4. Click Manage versions.
  5. Click Upload new version.

Note: If you upload a new version of a file owned by someone else, the original owner will stay the same.

Delete an older version

  1. On your computer, go to drive.google.com.
  2. Click on the file you want to replace.
  3. At the top right, click More .
  4. Click Manage versions.
  5. Next to the version you want to delete, click More Delete.

Version history

Version history for Google Docs, Sheets, & Slides is different than file versions in Google Drive. Learn how to see the history of changes for Google files.


Cinematographer and Lighting Cameraman

Cinematographer and Lighting Cameraman Chris Jones brings over ten years of experience to his work. He is equally at home shooting and lighting drama and commercials with a large crew as he is working on documentary films and he is fully familiar with all modern camera systems. Chris is based in the South West of England but is willing to travel both within the U.K. & internationally

This Microportal is built on the 2day Microportals platform which provides you with 3 click access to local and global information crucial both to your personal and working life. The platform provides live local data on transport, what's on, accommodation, eating out, shopping, sport, religion and weather as well as comprehensive reference and resource sections including TV, radio, online shopping, route planning, health, education and more.

We are not responsible for the content of external internet sites to which any 2day supported sites are linked. We do not share any contact information with other providers. We use cookies to make our site work efficiently. More information on privacy and cookies.

Copyright © 2004� 2day Microportals, East Quither Farm, Milton Abbot, Tavistock, Devon, PL19 0PZ, UK.


Revision

BBC Bitesize revision site with help for exams at the following levels - KS1, KS2, KS3, GCSE, Bitesize TGAU, Scottish Standard Grade and Scottish Highers.

Free revision plan available for students - you will need to register.

This Microportal is built on the 2day Microportals platform which provides you with 3 click access to local and global information crucial both to your personal and working life. The platform provides live local data on transport, what's on, accommodation, eating out, shopping, sport, religion and weather as well as comprehensive reference and resource sections including TV, radio, online shopping, route planning, health, education and more.

We are not responsible for the content of external internet sites to which any 2day supported sites are linked. We do not share any contact information with other providers. We use cookies to make our site work efficiently. More information on privacy and cookies.

Copyright © 2004� 2day Microportals, East Quither Farm, Milton Abbot, Tavistock, Devon, PL19 0PZ, UK.


Watch the video: Advice for history graduate students (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Adiran

    I am ready to help you, ask questions.

  2. Anton

    I'm sorry, nothing I can not help you. But I am sure you will find the right solution. Don't despair.

  3. Norval

    It is true! The idea of ??good support.



Write a message