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What weapons were manufactured in India by the British forces which were used during world wars?

What weapons were manufactured in India by the British forces which were used during world wars?


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Recently I came across references to a weapon called the Bangalore Torpedo, which was used in the world wars. These weapons were made in India by the British Indian Army. I also happened to see references to these weapons in the movie Saving Private Ryan.

My question is:

Were there any more weapons used in the world wars, that were made in India, and were British colonies like India used for the manufacture of weapons for British Army ?


The British had gun manufacturing set up in India, see Ordnance Factories Board on wikipedia.

In 1940, to combat the growing threat of Japan, a military aircraft manufacturing facility was set up in Bangalore. See Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Can't find any mention of naval or artillery production, but it's possible they were setup by the British.


Main keywords of the article below: couple, guns, allowed, accuracy, faster, warfare, percussion, victorian, metal, rifles, pistols, important, cartridge, system, inventions, name, weapons, changed, by:, iii, reloading, ball, weapon, modern, era, canons, olivencia, minie, types, significance, israel, machine, firing.

KEY TOPICS
Weapons of the Victorian Era By: Israel Olivencia III Types of Weapons Rifles Pistols Canons Important Inventions Percussion system Minie Ball Metal Cartridge How the Inventions changed warfare Faster firing Reloading Accuracy Significance of the Weapons in the Victorian Era Allowed modern pistols Machine guns Rifles Name a couple of important weapon inventions of the Victorian Era. [1] What were the Victorian military doing at this point? Well, there were three central areas of development within the army during the Victorian era. [2]

9781158008988: Victorian Era Military Equipment of the United Kingdom: Victorian Age Weapons of Great Britain, Victorian Era Naval Ships of the United Kingdom - AbeBooks: 1158008988 abebooks.com Passion for books. [3] Naturally the gentleman's weapon most associated with the Victorian era in the popular imagination would be the cane or walking stick. [4] Im doing a panel at a steampunk convention about weapons of the Victorian Era. [5]


Knives, swords, axes, pistols were also used as sources of weapons by the Victorian people. [6] The first automatic weapon developed during the Victorian time was the Gatling gun. [6] One development witnessed by the Victorians was in case of weapons of war. [6] Victorian Age weapons are those developed and used during the middle and late 19th Century, commonly referred to as the Victorian Age. [7]


Victorian era - The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. [8] Wristwatch GPS: Because this is item is part of the collection of Maurice Collins, who collects many Victorian Era gadgets, it tends to be labeled Victorian, although it's actually from the 1920s. [9] The later half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle. poque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. [8]

The 19th century saw the height of the aristocratic stick's popularity, both as ornament and as weapon (Victorian London boasted some 60 walking stick shops). [4] HMVS Cerberus website Additions to 1890 Manual for Victorian naval forces circa, HMVS Cerberus website I. V. Hogg & L. F. Thurston, British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918. [8] We have examined a number of common street weapons of the Victorian age. [4]

The shotgun is close to the time period as well but everything else is merely fantasy weapons designed in the victorian and post victorian era. [10] British Battleships of the Victorian Era is well illustrated--a comprehensive gallery of photographs with in-depth captions is accompanied by specially commissioned plans of the important classes by A. D. Baker III, and a color section featuring the original Admiralty drafts, including a spectacular double gatefold. [11] Beginning with the earliest installation of steam machinery in ships of the line, British Battleships of the Victorian Era traces the technological revolution that saw the introduction of iron hulls, armor plate, shell-ring guns, and the eventual abandonment of sail as auxiliary propulsion. [11] Object #4194/1928: Later in the Victorian era pieces of undergarments were combined into one piece, like this one. [12]

Our group places a heavy emphasis on physical conditioning, using techniques popular in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. [13]

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged weapons victorian price or ask your own question. [14] This isn't technically a weapon of the Victorian age but it has much in common with heavy single-edged broadswords such as cavalry sabers. [13]


There are nearly a dozen educational environments throughout the festival where local professors give lectures, as well as re-enactors discussing what times were like in London and the United States during the Victorian era. [15] The Victorian era of our world lasted from 1837 until 1901 and during that time we saw the move from muzzle loading muskets to breach loading single shot rifles with smaller bullets that traveled much faster and further when fired. [16] What is clear is that the British Army came out of the Victorian Era better trained and equipped than any other in the world. [17] First off nothing in Bioshock Infinite is done in the art-deco style, that is all victorian and post victorian era styling. [10]

If you want your world to feel like its the end of the 19th century as the world rushes into the modern era, pull out the older stuff such as muzzle loaded weapons and replace them with the pistols and rifles from the Dungeon Master's Guide. [16]

Gatling gun was one of the very first automatic weapons, or "machine guns". [2]

Cane guns were seldom used during the Victorian times as it was very inaccurate. [6] The Victorian military served through a period of great technological and social change. [2]

During the Victorian age, men were expected to fight for their country during wars. [2]

They travelled from Melbourne on 7 November 1863 on the troopship Himalaya, the Victorian Government purchased 6 more guns in 1864 to equip its horse artillery, one of these is restored and displayed at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. [8] Warfare in Victorian time? Im looking up the Boer war and Crimean, but I think the Crimean is a little earlier than most are used to. [5] When a lady or gentleman of the Victorian upper or middle class ventured into a less-than-savory district, a variety of defensive aids was available, from the lethal pistol and knife to the simple cudgel, walking stick, and umbrella. [4] The guns are now used in a Three Pound Saluting Gun Battery at the Garden Island Naval Base, russia adopted the Hotchkiss 5-barrel Gatling-type 3-pounder revolver cannon in the 1880s, and later adopted the less complicated single-barrel quick-firing weapon. [8] This used a counterweight to allow a 15-inch Rodman gun to be moved up and down a ramp, so the weapon could be reloaded, elevated. [8] Volley Gun: A multi-shot weapon, these could take many forms, like the Pepper-Box and the Nock Gun. [18] The weapon was designed by a Swedish engineer, Helge Palmcrantz and he created a mechanism to load and fire a multiple barreled gun by simply moving a single lever backwards and forwards. [8] Production of the weapon was funded by a Swedish steel producer and banker named Thorsten Nordenfelt, the name of the weapon was changed to the Nordenfelt gun. [8] New Russian battleships ceased carrying the weapon with the Evstafi class, however, they were subsequently fitted to patrol vessels and river craft during World War I, and at least 62 weapons were converted to anti-aircraft guns by 1917. [8] The British Army was in the midst of a significant weapons transformation from smoothbore muskets to rifled muskets, by the end of 1853, the Enfield rifle-musket was approved by the War Department for the army and was put into production. [8] The Army adopted the weapon, although its introduction was delayed because of opposition from the Royal Artillery and it saw action in the Mahdist War, notably at the Battle of Abu Klea, where its mechanism proved vulnerable to the environmental conditions of loose sand and dust. [8] BL 5-inch howitzer - The weapon was used by the Royal Field Artillery and served successfully at the Battle of Omdurman in 1898. [8] The weapon was adopted by the British Royal Navy, as an addition to their Gatling, however, with the development of the Maxim gun the weapon was eventually outclassed. [8] However the Army declined to purchase, at this point, the British Royal Navy, which had successfully deployed the Gatling gun, became interested in the weapon, and Gardner was invited to England to exhibit his invention. [8]

It has been called the weapon most associated with the British imperial conquest, the mechanism of the Maxim gun employed one of the earliest recoil-operated firing systems in history. [8] Maxim gun - The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by American-British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1883, it was the first recoil-operated machine gun. [8] By the time of its introduction, the sword was of limited use on the battlefield against rapid-firing rifles, machine guns, however, the new sword was regarded, when needed, as a very effective fighting weapon. [8] The first Enfield rifles were issued to the 58th and 65th Regiments, stationed in the country, the Enfield was not the ideal weapon for use in the dense bush covered hills of New Zealand because of its long length and weight.36 and Beaumont-Adams.44 revolvers. [8] For steampunk practitioners like Hutsell, weapons are a standard accessory to costumes that use Victorian-era aesthetics infused with Jules Verne-like visions of the future. [19] The ultimate example of this sort of formidable stick would be the knobkerrie, originally a native weapon from South Africa that could even be thrown like a missile. [4] Particularly in the first half of Victoria's reign these sticks would be ornately decorated, as they were the officer's mark of authority as well as his weapon. [4] While the test was not without issues the weapon managed to fire 4,722 rounds before the first stoppage, on 15 January and 17 March 1880 duplicate tests were conducted at Sandy Hook proving ground in front of an Army review board. [8] The weapon performed well, and they recommended that the Army buy a number for field evaluation. [8] G. Parkhurst, an engineer at Pratt and Whitney, the army attended the tests, but showed no interest in the weapon. [8] The Gardner machine gun was invented in 1874 by William Gardner of Toledo, after producing a prototype he went to the Pratt and Whitney company, who after a year of development produced a military version of the weapon. [8] It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. [8] Flintlock Rifle: A single-shot, muzzle-loaded rifled barrel weapon that would replace the musket. [18] The term "rifle-musket" originally referred to muskets with the smooth-bored barrels replaced with rifled barrels, the weapon would also be sufficiently long when fitted with a bayonet to be effective against cavalry. [8]

Blunderbuss: A muzzle-loading ancestor to the shotgun, these weapons are in wide use during this time. [18] The weapon fired a total of 10,000 rounds during the test, taking a total elapsed time of 27 minutes 36 seconds, with breaks between firing to resolve an issue with one of the extractors. [8] The added advantage of a swordstick was that once drawn the user had a pair of weapons, for the hollow body made a splendid cudgel/parrying stick in its own right. [4] There was the added benefit that such a stick made a more than serviceable weapon and its owner was less likely to wail if it shattered upon the thick pate of a luckless thug. [4] He was a part of "When is Enough Enough" a panel discussion about the gadgets, weapons, doohickeys and other steampunk accessories, many of them hand-made out of the innards of re-purposed toys, mechanical parts and bits of engines. [19] The Maxim gun design required water cooling, giving it the ability to maintain its rate of fire for far longer than air-cooled guns, the disadvantage of this was that it made the gun less flexible in attack than the lighter air-cooled weapons. [8] A lone soldier could fire the weapon, but it was operated by a team of men. [8] A plant producing the weapon was set up in England, with offices in London. [8] Category:Victorian-era weapons of the United Kingdom - Wikiwand For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Category:Victorian-era weapons of the United Kingdom. [20] QF3 pounder Nordenfelt, Nordenfelt equivalent I. V, hogg & L. F. Thurston, British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918. [8]

Cosplayers at comic conventions, dressed like superheroes and villains with skin-tight attire and giant guns and swords are under pressure as well as are some renaissance fair aficionados whose costumes include fake weapons. [19] Some have rules that limit what types of materials can be used to make fake weapons, Hutsell said. [19] He and others at the convention at the Handlery Hotel said that the touchiness of fake weapons is not unique to the steampunk community. [19]

I like those "Bulldog" revolvers, because to me, they symbolise a better era here, back when guns could be had at the local hardware store, or by mail order, and were thought of as being simply good to have should something go bump in the night. [5] In common with British cavalry swords of the era, they were compromised cut-and-thrust swords, in 1892, a new, straight, blade was introduced, mated to the existing Gothic hilt. [8] The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years. [8]

Then theres the oak walking stick as stick fighting was all the rage during that era as swords slowly went out of fashion and widespread civilian use. [5] The Dreyse pin-fire and its counterparts also were in use in that Era. [5]

Some notable military platforms might be artillery balloons, submarines, ironclads, monitors, and armored, artillery locomotives. Its also interesting to note that airships - a staple of more advanced steam-punk settings - were in their heyday at the latter part of the era, although there are significant reasons why they were never militarized. [5] During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. [8]

Youve got a wide range to sample! It also overlaps the U.S. Civil War and the "Western" era. [5] After the Napoleonic era the former gave way to the less lethal (and arguably cheaper, for the masses) stick. [4] Towards the end of the era self-loading pistol designs were appearing. [5] Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. [8] Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era. [8]

While firepower was a big part of warfare, it wasn't the only component in an era where flashing sabers and bouncing cannonballs mattered, battles were often influenced by weather. [21] As explained by Dr. Ken Mondschein in The Art of the Two-Handed Sword, the older martial art of the giant sword called the spadone or montante evolved over time into the 19th Century techniques of the grand b ton, and so by practicing this weapon we are preserving a link to the fighting arts of the middle ages. [13] This fabulous double-sided engraved study of antique weapons of war from the late 19th century Germany is in perfect shape. [22] The Navy was in advance of the Army in the use of semi-automatic, and later automatic, weapons. [23] More powerful than any army artillery, these weapons were invaluable for breaching walls. [23] Bio: Adam Firestone brings more than 25 years of experience with weapon systems including small arms, artillery, armor, area denial systems and precision guided munitions to Romance University. [21] The cutlass, the weapon most closely associated with the British bluejacket was still considered a useful weapon. [23] The flame from this ignition reaches the main powder charge through a small hole I the barrel and ignites the main powder charge in the barrel, causing the weapon to fire. [21] Mounted on upper-decks, or even in fighting tops on masts, such weapons could deliver a devastating rate and volume of fire and could be compared with the "Goalkeeper" close-in weapons systems mounted today for protection against missile, aircraft and fast- boat attack. [23] A wooden implement used as a training stand-in for heavy one-handed weapons such as the cavalry saber. [13] Bourgeoys' basic design became the standard for flintlocks and weapons based on this design were used for over two centuries, until they were rendered obsolete by percussion locks in the 1840s. [21] Thursday is also the evening when we work with canes (using traditional walking sticks as weapons) and knives. [13] I don't have a reason to use weapons in my stories, but I always enjoy reading your posts. [21] Organizations such as the Kernoozers Club, the Bartitsu Club, and L'Ecole d'Escrime Français were hotspots for period interest in a range of physical culture regimens, self-defense techniques, and weapons styles. [13] An even more impressive achievement was that of the naval brigade of HMS Shannon, which dragged several of her 8-inch weapons some 600 miles across Northern India, from Calcutta to Lucknow, during the suppression of the Indian Mutiny in 1857-58. [23] A noted defense analyst and naval weapons expert lays out the roles of navies and naval strategy in. [11] The Gatling, Nordenveldt and Gardner designs were all mechanical rather than automatic weapons, and were fired by manually turning a crank, or in the case of the Nordenvedlt, by rocking a lever back and forward. [23] Tomahawks effective weapons in close action - were carried by some ships into mid-century and beyond. [23]

The Victorian period ranges from 1837-1901, beginning at the time of Queen Victoria's reign and lasting until her death. [12] This group draws inspiration from Victorian physical culture and "antagonistics," which is what martial arts were called in the English-speaking world until the term "martial arts" (a translation of Japanese bushido ) came into use in the 1930s. [13]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


The campaign in which Allied forces defeated the Japanese in Burma was unique in that neither side particularly wished to wage war there. When Japan entered the war on the side of the Axis powers in December 1941, her main aims were to acquire raw materials, particularly oil, rubber and tin and, through expansion of the so-called Greater Co-Prosperity Sphere, to create space for the population of the over-crowded home islands.

The raid at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 was a devastating blow to the Americans.

These needs fired the strategic thinking of belligerent politicians and service chiefs in Tokyo. They worked on the assumption that a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet's base at Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii, would enable the Imperial Japanese army, air force and navy to attain the warlords' territorial aims before the western Allies could react.

The raid at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 was a devastating blow to the Americans. It failed, however, in its main aim, that of sinking the American fleet's aircraft carriers. This was because, providentially, they were out at sea on that day - sometimes known as the Day of Infamy. On hearing this intelligence, Admiral Yamamoto, the gifted master planner of the enterprise, knew that the war was already as good as lost.

Despite this, Japanese plans elsewhere worked beyond expectation. Hong Kong and Indo-China fell to them without difficulty, but the greatest triumphs occurred on the Malay peninsula and in Singapore, where British, Australian and Indian troops were forced into humiliating surrender.

The Japanese completed their triumphs by overrunning the Dutch East Indies, spreading out into the western Pacific by capturing numerous island bases, and threatening the security of Australia.


The 19th century

A revival commenced late in the 18th century in India. There Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali’s son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British.

The news of the successful use of rockets spread through Europe. In England Sir William Congreve began to experiment privately. First, he experimented with a number of black-powder formulas and set down standard specifications of composition. He also standardized construction details and used improved production techniques. Also, his designs made it possible to choose either an explosive (ball charge) or incendiary warhead. The explosive warhead was separately ignited and could be timed by trimming the fuse length before launching. Thus, air bursts of the warheads were feasible at different ranges.

Congreve’s metal rocket bodies were equipped on one side with two or three thin metal loops into which a long guide stick was inserted and crimped firm. Weights of eight different sizes of these rockets ranged up to 60 pounds. Launching was from collapsible A-frame ladders. In addition to aerial bombardment, Congreve’s rockets were often fired horizontally along the ground.

These side-stick-mounted rockets were employed in a successful naval bombardment of the French coastal city of Boulogne in 1806. The next year a massed attack, using hundreds of rockets, burned most of Copenhagen to the ground. During the War of 1812 between the United States and the British, rockets were employed on numerous occasions. The two best-known engagements occurred in 1814. At the Battle of Bladensburg (August 24) the use of rockets assisted British forces to turn the flank of the American troops defending Washington, D.C. As a result, the British were able to capture the city. In September the British forces attempted to capture Fort McHenry, which guarded Baltimore harbour. Rockets were fired from a specially designed ship, the Erebus, and from small boats. The British were unsuccessful in their bombardment, but on that occasion Francis Scott Key, inspired by the sight of the night engagement, wrote “The Star Spangled Banner,” later adopted as the United States national anthem. “The rockets’ red glare” has continued to memorialize Congreve’s rockets ever since.

In 1815 Congreve further improved his designs by mounting his guide stick along the central axis. The rocket’s propulsive jet issued through five equally spaced holes rather than a single orifice. The forward portion of the guide stick, which screwed into the rocket, was sheathed with brass to prevent burning. The centre-stick-mounted rockets were significantly more accurate. Also, their design permitted launching from thin copper tubes.

Maximum ranges of Congreve rockets were from one-half mile to two miles (0.8 to 3.2 kilometres), depending upon size. They were competitive in performance and cost with the ponderous 10-inch mortar and were vastly more mobile.

The next significant development in rocketry occurred about the middle of the 19th century. William Hale, a British engineer, invented a method of successfully eliminating the deadweight of the flight-stabilizing guide stick. By designing jet vents at an angle, he was able to spin the rocket. He developed various designs, including curved vanes that were acted upon by the rocket jet. These rockets, stabilized by means of spin, represented a major improvement in performance and ease of handling.

Even the new rockets, however, could not compete with the greatly improved artillery with rifled bores. The rocket corps of most European armies were dissolved, though rockets were still used in swampy or mountainous areas that were difficult for the much heavier mortars and guns. The Austrian Rocket Corps, using Hale rockets, won a number of engagements in mountainous terrain in Hungary and Italy. Other successful uses were by the Dutch colonial services in Celebes and by Russia in a number of engagements in the Turkistan War.

Hale sold his patent rights to the United States in time for some 2,000 rockets to be made for the Mexican War, 1846–48. Although some were fired, they were not particularly successful. Rockets were used in a limited way in the American Civil War (1861–65), but reports are fragmentary, and apparently they were not decisive. The U.S. Ordnance Manual of 1862 lists 16-pound Hale rockets with a range of 1.25 miles.

In Sweden about the turn of the century, Wilhelm Unge invented a device described as an “aerial torpedo.” Based upon the stickless Hale rocket, it incorporated a number of design improvements. One of these was a rocket motor nozzle that caused the gas flow to converge and then diverge. Another was the use of smokeless powder based on nitroglycerin. Unge believed that his aerial torpedoes would be valuable as surface-to-air weapons against dirigibles. Velocity and range were increased, and about 1909 the Krupp armament firm of Germany purchased the patents and a number of rockets for further experimentation.


Machine gun

Machine guns were an exceptionally lethal addition to the battlefield in World War I. Heavy guns, such as the Maxim and Hotchkiss, made “no man's land” a killing zone, and Isaac Newton Lewis's light machine gun saw widespread use at the squad level and as an aircraft armament.

Tanks were used primarily in a supporting role. The armoured vehicle would not truly come into its own until the doctrines of J.F.C. Fuller and Basil Liddell Hart were more widely adopted in World War II.


INNOVATIONS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (WW1)

The military invention at the time commemorated the great development of automatic rifles, explosives and heavy artillery, as well as new weapons such as submarines, poison gas, fighter jets, and tanks.

Innovation during World War I (1914–1918) marked the industrial revolution and the use of great weapons production and warfare in the aftermath. This pattern began at any time fifty years before World War I during the American Civil War of 1861–1865, [1] and it went through many modest wars in which warriors and experts tried new weapons.

World War I weapons include the most common and advanced types of weapons of mass destruction, some of which have been modified using new methods and the various weapons used in conflicts. The naming of the soldiers at the time commemorated the great advances in guns, projectiles and machine guns, as well as new weapons such as submarines, poison gas, fighter jets, and tanks.

One can point to the long pre-World War I as a conflict of innovation in the twentieth century and nineteenth-century military science that created insufficient wars with a multitude of issues on both sides. In Ashore, major conflicts in the vicinity came as a surprise, and in the last year of the war, key forces made significant efforts to disrupt order and control and to adapt their combat tactics and begin to bind new developments for military purposes.

Strategic reorganization, (for example, to move a place of order from a 100+ men’s organization to 10+ employees) is linked at the waist with protected vehicles, first underground guns, and organized firearms that could be transferred to a single officer and used.


5. Bolo Knife

The bolo knife was originally an all-purpose tool used for clearing brush or harvesting crops, but in the hands of revolutionaries, it became a formidable weapon of war. The machete-like blades originated in the Philippines, where native guerillas used them as improvised arms in the Philippine Revolution, the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War. Despite being severely out-gunned, these 𠇋olomen” often used their knives to gruesome effect. “Their principal weapon is the long, broad-bladed, vicious-looking knife called the bolo, with which they do their deadly work,” an American serviceman named Ira L. Reeves once wrote of the Filipinos. “They make many boasts of their prowess and skill in taking human life, and one of their proudest feats is to sever the head from the body with a single blow.” The fearsome blades later saw action during World War II, and they remain a common weapon in Filipino martial arts.

Katana. (Credit: Tim Hughes/Getty Images)


Find out more

Books and articles

Sepoys in the Trenches: The Indian Corps on the Western Front, 1914-15 by Gordon Corrigan (Spellmount, 1999)

Indian Voices of the Great War: Soldiers' Letters, 1914-1918 edited by David Omissi (Macmillan, 1999)

The Sepoy and the Raj: The Indian Army, 1860-1940 by David Omissi (Macmillan, 1994)

Battle Colors: Race, Sex and Colonial Soldiery in World War I by Philippa Levine (Journal of Women's History 9, no 4, 1998)

The Imperial Reserve: The Indian Corps on the Western Front, 1914-15 by Jeffrey Greenhut (Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 12, 1983)


The smokeless powder revolution

All early breechloaders used black powder as their source of propellant energy, but in the early 1880s more powerful and cleaner-burning nitrocellulose-based propellants were perfected. Whereas black powder produced a large quantity of solid material upon combustion, quickly fouling barrels and pouring out huge clouds of smoke, nitrocellulose produced mostly gas and was therefore labeled “smokeless powder.” Also, it produced three times the energy of black powder and burned at a more controllable rate. Such characteristics made possible a shift to longer and smaller-diameter projectiles. Bore diameters were again reduced, this time to calibres of about .30 inch, or 7.5 to 8 mm. Muzzle velocities ranged from 2,000 to 2,800 feet per second, and accurate range extended to 1,000 yards and beyond. Because lead projectiles were too soft to be used at such increased power and velocity, they were sheathed in harder metal. In 1881 a Swiss officer, Eduard Alexander Rubin, was the first to perfect a full-length copper-jacketed bullet.


L96 and L115 Sniper Rifles [ edit | edit source ]

Royal Marines snipers displaying their L115A1 rifles.

The L96 is a sniper rifle produced by Accuracy International derived from the their PM rifle which was designed by Olympic marksman Malcolm Cooper. This weapon was adopted into British Service in the early 1980s as a replacement for the Lee-Enfield L42, it was in turn replaced by the .338 Lapua Magnum L115A3 rifle.



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