History Podcasts

Digging History 8: The Regal Period

Digging History 8: The Regal Period

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


The regal period largely coincides with the Archaic period, for Rome's development.
Of course, a lot was going in what would develop into Rome before the famed foundation date of 753 BC (which was debated by ancient historians nevertheless).
The 8th and 7th centuries are known as the Iron Age and Orientalizing period and were marked by shared and overlapping traditions and practices up and down Italy, involving Latium, Etruria, and Magna Graecia.

For the Romans' own consideration of the early city, a quintessential starting point is Livy, whose first five books begin with Romulus (and earlier still, the tradition of Evander and his fellow Greeks).

Some examples of monuments and projects attributed to the early kings:

Romulus - Temple of Jupiter Feretrius on the Capitoline hill
Numa Pompilius - Temple of Janus in the Roman Forum
Tullius Hostilius - Curia Hostilia (first Senate house)
Ancus Marcius -- fortification of the Janiculum, Pons Sublicius
Tarquinus Priscus - terracing of the Capitoline hill, draining of the Forum area
Servius Tullius - first extensive wall circuit of the city, Temple of Diana on the Aventine hill
Tarqunius Superbus - Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline hill

In terms of the archaeology of the early city, the remains are piecemeal, as one would expect, although at times astoundingly impressive.

We can look at early remains of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the Servian Wall, the sacred area of S. Omobono, and the Roman Forum itself. For the Forum, we can note the Lapis Niger, Mundus, Venus Cloacina, Lacus Curtius, and Curia Hostilia. (We will cover the Forum and its monuments in a later episode.) Of course, there are many other areas that have yielded interesting remains, such as the Esquiline cemetery (remains of which are housed in the Centrale Montemartini museum) and most recently on the Quirinal, quite possibly the earliest remains of the Temple of Quirinus.

For further reading:
The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC), by T. J. Cornell
"On the Origins of the Roman Forum" (American Journal of Archaeology 94.4/ 1990), by A. Ammerman

Biography of Typhoid Mary, Who Spread Typhoid in Early 1900s

  • The 20th Century
    • People & Events
    • Fads & Fashions
    • Early 20th Century
    • The 20s
    • The 30s
    • The 40s
    • The 50s
    • The 60s
    • The 80s
    • The 90s

    Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869–November 11, 1938), known as "Typhoid Mary," was the cause of several typhoid outbreaks. Since Mary was the first "healthy carrier" of typhoid fever recognized in the United States, she did not understand how someone not sick could spread disease—so she tried to fight back.

    Fast Facts: Mary Mallon ('Typhoid Mary')

    • Known For: Unknowing (and knowing) carrier of typhoid fever
    • Born: September 23, 1869 in Cookstown, Ireland
    • Parents: John and Catherine Igo Mallon
    • Died: November 11, 1938 in the Riverside Hospital, North Brother Island, Bronx
    • Education: Unknown
    • Spouse: None
    • Children: None

    Mary I: 8 facts about her life, death and legacy

    Mary I, aka Mary Tudor or 'Bloody Mary', was the daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. The first queen regnant of England, she succeeded the English throne following the death of her half-brother, Edward VI, in 1553. But how much do you know about her? From her phantom pregnancy to her military accomplishments, we bring you the facts about her reign

    This competition is now closed

    Published: February 18, 2021 at 7:11 am

    We bring you eight facts about the Tudor monarch Mary I, the first queen regnant of England…

    Mary I was declared illegitimate by her father, Henry VIII

    The only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary I was effectively bastardised when her father divorced her mother in order to marry Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII claimed that the marriage had been incestuous and illegal, as Catherine had been married to his late brother, Arthur.

    Following the birth of Mary’s half-sister, Elizabeth (the future Elizabeth I), in September 1533, an Act of Parliament declared the 17-year-old Mary illegitimate and removed her from the succession to the throne (though she was reinstated by the 1543 Third Act of Succession and by Henry’s will). Mary was denied access to her mother, who had been sent by Henry to live away from court, and never saw her again.

    Mary I remained a devout Catholic

    Mary was later named heir to the throne after her younger half-brother Edward – but only after she had agreed to recognise their father as head of the church. Nevertheless, Mary remained a devout Catholic. She and her brother had a tempestuous relationship as they differed greatly in their religious views. When, aged nine, Edward VI inherited the throne in 1547 and confronted Mary’s Catholicism, she declared that she would rather lay her head on a block than forsake her faith.

    Mary was the orchestrator of an extraordinary coup d’état

    The first queen to rule England in her own right (rather than a queen through marriage to a king), Mary acceded the throne following her brother’s death in July 1553 in what Anna Whitelock describes as “an extraordinary coup d’état”. Edward had written Mary out of the succession and instead named his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey as heir to the throne, but Mary enjoyed widespread popular support and days later, on 19 July, she was proclaimed queen.

    Writing for BBC History Magazine in December 2014, Anna Whitelock argued: “The scale of [Mary’s] achievement is often overlooked. Mary had led the only successful revolt against central government in 16th-century England. She had eluded capture, mobilised a counter-coup and, in the moment of crisis, proved courageous, decisive and politically adept.”

    Mary I is remembered as a bloody queen

    Mary I is remembered for attempting to reverse the Reformation and return England to Catholicism. As her reign progressed, Mary “grew more and more fervent in her desire”: she restored papal supremacy, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church and reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops.

    Mary also famously revived old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country – heresy being a treasonable offence. Over the next three-and-a-half years, hundreds of Protestants – most accounts say around 300 – were burned at the stake.

    Mary I suffered a ‘phantom pregnancy’

    Aged 37 and unmarried when she ascended the throne, Mary knew that in order to prevent her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth from succeeding her, she needed to marry and produce an heir. Mary’s decision in July 1554 to marry Philip of Spain, who in 1556 was to inherit that nation’s throne from his father, Charles V, was “politically expedient”, says Anna Whitelock.

    In her December 2014 article written for BBC History Magazine, Whitelock wrote: “The marriage treaty was as ‘favourable as possible for the interest and security and even the grandeur of England’, with Mary’s legal rights as queen preserved and Spanish influence kept to a minimum.”

    In January 1554 Mary faced – and later defeated – a Protestant rebellion led by landowner Thomas Wyatt that aimed to prevent the match with Philip. Wyatt was later executed at Tower Hill. Mary imprisoned her half-sister Elizabeth at the Tower of London in 1554, suspecting her of involvement in Wyatt’s plot against her. Elizabeth was later released into house arrest in the country.

    A peculiar episode in Mary’s reign was her phantom pregnancy of 1555. On 30 April “bells rang, bonfires were lit and there were celebrations in the street, following news that Mary I had given birth to a healthy son. But in reality there was no boy, and eventually all hope of a child died out.” The marriage was childless and Philip eventually deserted Mary, spending most of his time in Europe.

    Mary I was a highly impressive queen

    Historians have long focused on the negative aspects of Mary’s five-year reign, branding her a religious bigot and a military failure, but in recent years Mary has been largely reappraised.

    Anna Whitelock says: “Mary’s accession had changed the rules of the game, and the nature of this new feminised politics was yet to be defined, yet in many respects Mary proved more than equal to the task. Decisions over the details of the practice and power of a queen regnant became precedents for the future. In April 1554 Mary’s parliament passed the Act for Regal Power, which enshrined in law that queens held power as ‘fully, wholly and absolutely’ as their male predecessors, thereby establishing the gender-free authority of the crown.”

    Mary also restructured the economy and reorganised the militia, rebuilt the navy and successfully managed her parliament. By securing the throne, Mary ensured that the crown continued along the legal line of Tudor succession.

    Mary I was not such a military failure

    Mary is remembered for her unsuccessful war against France that led to the loss of Calais, England’s last possession in France, in January 1558. But before the loss of Calais, Mary enjoyed military successes. For example, in August 1557 English and Spanish forces captured Saint-Quentin, an action in which some 3,000 French troops were killed and 7,000 captured, including their commander Anne de Montmorency, the constable of France.

    Mary I is buried in Westminster Abbey

    Mary died on 17 November 1558, possibly from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth. Mary is buried beneath Elizabeth I in Westminster Abbey. King James I arranged for Elizabeth I to be dug up from elsewhere in the abbey three years after her death and moved into Mary’s grave.

    This article was first published by HistoryExtra in February 2016

    What Does It Mean to Think Historically?

    When we started working on Teachers for a New Era, a Carnegie-sponsored initiative designed to strengthen teacher training, we thought we knew a thing or two about our discipline. As we began reading such works as Sam Wineburg's Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts, however, we encountered an unexpected challenge. 1 If our understandings of the past constituted a sort of craft knowledge, how could we distill and communicate habits of mind we and our colleagues had developed through years of apprenticeship, guild membership, and daily practice to university students so that they, in turn, could impart these habits in K&ndash12 classrooms?

    In response, we developed an approach we call the "five C's of historical thinking." The concepts of change over time, causality, context, complexity, and contingency, we believe, together describe the shared foundations of our discipline. They stand at the heart of the questions historians seek to answer, the arguments we make, and the debates in which we engage. These ideas are hardly new to professional historians. But that is precisely their value: They make our implicit ways of thought explicit to the students and teachers whom we train. The five C's do not encompass the universe of historical thinking, yet they do provide a remarkably useful tool for helping students at practically any level learn how to formulate and support arguments based on primary sources, as well as to understand and challenge historical interpretations related in secondary sources. In this article, we define the five C's, explain how each concept helps us to understand the past, and provide some brief examples of how we have employed the five C's when teaching teachers. Our approach is necessarily broad and basic, characteristics well suited for a foundation upon which we invite our colleagues from kindergartens to research universities to build.

    Change over Time

    The idea of change over time is perhaps the easiest of the C's to grasp. Students readily acknowledge that we employ and struggle with technologies unavailable to our forebears, that we live by different laws, and that we enjoy different cultural pursuits. Moreover, students also note that some aspects of life remain the same across time. Many Europeans celebrate many of the same holidays that they did three or four hundred years ago, for instance, often using the same rituals and words to mark a day's significance. Continuity thus comprises an integral part of the idea of change over time.

    Students often find the concept of change over time elementary. Even individuals who claim to despise history can remember a few dates and explain that some preceded or followed others. At any educational level, timelines can teach change over time as well as the selective process that leads people to pay attention to some events while ignoring others. In our U.S. survey class, we often ask students to interview family and friends and write a paper explaining how their family's history has intersected with major events and trends that we are studying. By discovering their own family's past, students often see how individuals can make a difference and how personal history changes over time along with major events.

    As historians of the American West and environmental historians, we often turn to maps to teach change over time. The same space represented in different ways as political power, economic structures, and cultural influences shift can often put in shocking relief the differences that time makes. The work of repeat photographers such as Mark Klett offers another compelling tool for teaching change over time. Such photographers begin with a historic landscape photograph, then take pains to re-take the shot from the same site, at the same angle, using similar equipment, and even under analogous conditions. 2 While suburbs and industry have overrun many western locales, students are often surprised to see that some places have become more desolate and others have hardly changed at all. The exercise engages students with a non-written primary source, photographs, and demands that they reassess their expectations regarding how time changes.


    Some things change, others stay the same&mdashnot a very interesting story but reason for concern since history, as the best teachers will tell you, is about telling stories. Good story telling, we contend, builds upon an understanding of context. Given young people's fascination with narratives and their enthusiasm for imaginative play, pupils (particularly elementary school students) often find context the most engaging element of historical thinking. As students mature, of course, they recognize that the past is not just a playful alternate universe. Working with primary sources, they discover that the past makes more sense when they set it within two frameworks. In our teaching, we liken the first to the floating words that roll across the screen at the beginning of every Star Wars film. This kind of context sets the stage the second helps us to interpret evidence concerning the action that ensues. Texts, events, individual lives, collective struggles&mdashall develop within a tightly interwoven world.

    Historians who excel at the art of storytelling often rely heavily upon context. Jonathan Spence's Death of Woman Wang, for example, skillfully recreates 17th-century China by following the trail of a sparsely documented murder. To solve the mystery, students must understand the time and place in which it occurred. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich brings colonial New England to life by concentrating on the details of textile production and basket making in Age of Homespun. College courses regularly use the work of both authors because they not only spark student interest, but also hone students' ability to describe the past and identify distinctive elements of different eras. 3

    Imaginative play is what makes context, arguably the easiest, yet also, paradoxically, the most difficult of the five C's to teach. Elementary school assignments that require students to research and wear medieval European clothes or build a California mission from sugar cubes both strive to teach context. The problem with such assignments is that they often blur the lines between reality and make-believe. The picturesque often trumps more banal or more disturbing truths. Young children may never be able to get all the facts straight. As one elementary school teacher once reminded us, "We teach kids who still believe in Santa Claus." Nonetheless, elementary school teachers can be cautious in their re-creations, and, most of all, they can be comfortable telling students when they don't know a given fact or when more research is necessary. That an idea might require more thought or more research is a valuable lesson at any age. The desire to recreate a world sometimes drives students to dig more deeply into their books, a reaction few teachers lament.

    In our own classes, we have taught context using an assignment that we call "Fact, Fiction, or Creative Memory." In this exercise, students wrestle with a given source and determine whether it is primarily a work of history, fiction, or memory. We have asked students to bring in a present-day representation of 1950s life and explain what it teaches people today about life in 1950s America. Then, we have asked the class to discuss if the representation is a historically fair depiction of the era. We have also assigned textbook passages and Don DeLillo's Pafko at the Wall, then asked students to compare them to decide which offers stronger insights into the character of Cold War America. 4 Each of these assignments addresses context, because each asks students to think about the distinctions between representations of the past and the critical thinking about the past that is history. Moreoever, each asks students to weave together a variety of sources and assess the reliability of each before incorporating them into a whole.


    Historians use context, change over time, and causality to form arguments explaining past change. While scientists can devise experiments to test theories and yield data, historians cannot alter past conditions to produce new information. Rather, they must base their arguments upon the interpretation of partial primary sources that frequently offer multiple explanations for a single event. Historians have long argued over the causes of the Protestant Reformation or World War I, for example, without achieving consensus. Such uncertainty troubles some students, but history classrooms are at their most dynamic when teachers encourage pupils to evaluate the contributions of multiple factors in shaping past events, as well as to formulate arguments asserting the primacy of some causes over others.

    To teach causality, we have turned to the stand-by activities of the history classroom: debates and role-playing. After arming students with primary sources, we ask them to argue whether monetary or fiscal policy played a greater role in causing the Great Depression. After giving students descriptions drawn from primary sources of immigrant families in Los Angeles, we have asked students to take on the role of various family members and explain their reasons for immigrating and their reasons for settling in particular neighborhoods. Neither exercise is especially novel, but both fulfill a central goal of studying history: to develop persuasive explanations of historical events and processes based on logical interpretations of evidence.


    Contingency may, in fact, be the most difficult of the C's. To argue that history is contingent is to claim that every historical outcome depends upon a number of prior conditions that each of these prior conditions depends, in turn, upon still other conditions and so on. The core insight of contingency is that the world is a magnificently interconnected place. Change a single prior condition, and any historical outcome could have turned out differently. Lee could have won at Gettysburg, Gore might have won in Florida, China might have inaugurated the world's first industrial revolution.
    Contingency can be an unsettling idea&mdashso much so that people in the past have often tried to mask it with myths of national and racial destiny. The Pilgrim William Bradford, for instance, interpreted the decimation of New England's native peoples not as a consequence of smallpox, but as a literal godsend. 5 Two centuries later, American ideologues chose to rationalize their unlikely fortunes&mdashfrom the purchase of Louisiana to the discovery of gold in California&mdashas their nation's "Manifest Destiny." Historians, unlike Bradford and the apologists of westward expansion, look at the same outcomes differently. They see not divine fate, but a series of contingent results possessing other possibilities.

    Contingency demands that students think deeply about past, present, and future. It offers a powerful corrective to teleology, the fallacy that events pursue a straight-arrow course to a pre-determined outcome, since people in the past had no way of anticipating our present world. Contingency also reminds us that individuals shape the course of human events. What if Karl Marx had decided to elude Prussian censors by emigrating to the United States instead of France, where he met Frederick Engels? To assert that the past is contingent is to impress upon students the notion that the future is up for grabs, and that they bear some responsibility for shaping the course of future history.

    Contingency can be a difficult concept to present abstractly, but it suffuses the stories historians tend to tell about individual lives. Futurology, however, might offer an even stronger tool for imparting contingency than biography. Mechanistic views of history as the inevitable march toward the present tend to collapse once students see how different their world is from any predicted in the past.


    Moral, epistemological, and causal complexity distinguish historical thinking from the conception of "history" held by many non-historians. 6 Re-enacting battles and remembering names and dates require effort but not necessarily analytical rigor. Making sense of a messy world that we cannot know directly, in contrast, is more confounding but also more rewarding.

    Chronicles distill intricate historical processes into a mere catalogue, while nostalgia conjures an uncomplicated golden age that saves us the trouble of having to think about the past. Our own need for order can obscure our understanding of how past worlds functioned and blind us to the ways in which myths of rosy pasts do political and cultural work in the present. Reveling in complexity rather than shying away from it, historians seek to dispel the power of chronicle, nostalgia, and other traps that obscure our ability to understand the past on its own terms.

    One of the most successful exercises we have developed for conveying complexity in all of these dimensions is a mock debate on Cherokee Removal. Two features of the exercise account for the richness and depth of understanding that it imparts on students. First, the debate involves multiple parties the Treaty and Anti-Treaty Parties, Cherokee women, John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, northern missionaries, the State of Georgia, and white settlers each offer a different perspective on the issue. Second, students develop their understanding of their respective positions using the primary sources collected in Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents by Theda Perdue and Michael Green. 7 While it can be difficult to assess what students learn from such exercises, we have noted anecdotally that, following the exercise, students seem much less comfortable referring to "American" or "Indian" positions as monolithic identities.


    Our experiments with the five C's have confronted us with several challenges. These concepts offer a fluid tool for engaging historical thought at multiple levels, but they can easily degenerate into a checklist. Students who favor memorization over analysis seem inclined to recite the C's without necessarily understanding them. Moreover, as habits of mind, the five C's develop only with practice. Though primary and secondary schools increasingly emphasize some aspects of these themes, particularly the use of primary sources as evidence, more attention to the five C's with appropriate variations over the course of K&ndash12 education would help future citizens not only to care about history, but also to contemplate it. It is our hope that this might help students to see the past not simply as prelude to our present, nor a list of facts to memorize, a cast of heroes and villains to cheer and boo, nor as an itinerary of places to tour, but rather as an ideal field for thinking long and hard about important questions.

    &mdashFlannery Burke and Thomas Andrews are both assistant professors of history and Teachers for a New Era faculty members at California State University at Northridge. Burke is working on a book for the University Press of Kansas tentatively entitled Longing and Belonging: Mabel Dodge Luhan and Greenwich Village's Avant-Garde in Taos . Andrews is completing a manuscript for Harvard University Press, tentatively entitled Ludlow: The Nature of Industrial Struggle in the Colorado Coalfields .


    1. Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001).

    2. Mark Klett, Kyle Bajakian, William L. Fox, Michael Marshall, Toshi Ueshina, and Byron G. Wolfe, Third Views, Second Sights: A Rephotographic Survey of the American West (Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 2004).

    3. Jonathan D. Spence, Death of Woman Wang (New York: Viking, 1978) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth (New York: Knopf, 2001).

    4. Don DeLillo, Pafko at the Wall: A Novella (New York: Scribner's, 2001).

    5. William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, ed. Samuel Eliot Morison (New York: Random House, 1952).

    6. Roy Rosenzweig and David Thelen, The Presence of the Past: Popular Uses of History in American Life (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).

    7. Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green, The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents 2nd ed. (Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005).

    KS2 History Quizzes

    (Engaging KS2 History revision quizzes to teach students in Year 3, Year 4, Year 5 and Year 6)

    Every thread of History has its own stories. Every country, every person, every era, every culture. Millions of stories, all making up our illustrious* past. The obvious question is - where do we start? Learning KS2 History is your chance to learn more about the people and stories that came before you. You’ll be thrilled to know the National Curriculum picks out some of the best stories for you to study.

    They did all the boring digging, so you get to learn the most interesting stuff!

    *It’s a fancy word for respected and admired. We’re trying to keep in with the tone of all the Kings and Queens, if you don’t mind.

    You can leave your dull textbooks at home because we’re going to discover the Aztecs, the Romans, the Tudors and the Vikings in a way that you’ll love. We’ll follow all those stories and more through our revision quizzes, where you can build an impressive understanding of all the empires and traditions that were established well before your head popped into the world.

    “Why do we have to know about History? It’s already happened!” we hear you wail.

    Listen up, little squids. The future and our history are more closely related than you might realise. How do you think we built the foundations for law and politics and all that other important stuff? The more we know about the people who lived before us, the more tools we have to build a better life now. Besides, learning about mummies and ancient inventions is fascinating.

    Join us on our quest for stories. We’re going to follow some of the most breathtaking and shocking historical events that have ever happened. We’ll look closely at amazing cultures and see how the human race changed over generations. Like the biggest movie ever.

    Are you paying attention? This is going to be good.

    Discover all there is to know about KS2 by taking a few minutes to read Key Stage 2 Curriculum.

    History & Culture

    In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which required the various Indian tribes in today’s southeastern United States to give up their lands in exchange for federal territory which was located west of the Mississippi River. Most Indians fiercely resisted this policy, but as the 1830s wore on, most of the major tribes – the Choctaws, Muscogee Creeks, Seminoles, and Chickasaws – agreed to be relocated to Indian Territory (in present-day Oklahoma). The Cherokee were forced to move because a small, rump faction of the tribe signed the Treaty of New Echota in late 1835, a treaty that the U.S. Senate ratified in May 1836. This action – the treaty signing and its subsequent Senate approval – tore the Cherokee into two implacable factions: a minority of those who were allied with the “treaty party,” and the vast majority that bitterly opposed the treaty signing.

    In May 1838, the Cherokee removal process began. U.S. Army troops, along with various state militia, moved into the tribe’s homelands and forcibly evicted more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia. They were first sent to so-called “round up camps,” and soon afterward to one of three emigration camps. Once there, the U.S. Army gave orders to move the Cherokee west. In June 1838, three detachments left southeastern Tennessee and were sent to Indian Territory by water. Difficulties with those moves, however, led to negotiations between Principal Chief John Ross and U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, and later that summer, Scott issued an order stating that Ross would be in charge of all future detachment movements. Ross, honoring that pledge, orchestrated the migration of fourteen detachments, most of which traveled over existing roads, between August and December 1838.

    The impact of the resulting Cherokee “Trail of Tears” was devastating. More than a thousand Cherokee – particularly the old, the young, and the infirm – died during their trip west, hundreds more deserted from the detachments, and an unknown number – perhaps several thousand – perished from the consequences of the forced migration. The tragic relocation was completed by the end of March 1839, and resettlement of tribal members in Oklahoma began soon afterward. The Cherokee, in the years that followed, struggled to reassert themselves in the new, unfamiliar land. Today, they are a proud, independent tribe, and its members recognize that despite the adversity they have endured, they are resilient and invest in their future.

    Types of GDP

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis compiles the data. Keep in mind, when reviewing this history, that the BEA measures GDP in two ways: nominal GDP and real GDP.

    Nominal GDP

    Nominal GDP is the total U.S. economic output for that year. The BEA also calls it the "current-dollar GDP" since it's measured as a dollar amount and it doesn't take factors like inflation into account.   Experts use nominal GDP to compare economic output to U.S. debt, which is also measured in dollars without adjusting for inflation. The article "National Debt by Year" shows the debt-to-GDP ratio since 1929.

    Real GDP

    Real GDP accounts for inflation, making comparisons to previous years more accurate.   The BEA uses it to calculate the GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. Real GDP is important because without canceling out the effects of inflation, the GDP could appear to grow, when really all that's happened is an increase in prices.

    To calculate real GDP, the BEA starts with a reference year. The current base year is 2012.   You'll notice that nominal and real GDP are the same in 2012. Real GDP shows what GDP would have been in each year if it were priced in 2012 dollars. That's how it removes the effect of inflation.

    The current base year for GDP calculations is 2012. The period from which the weights for a measurement series are derived. The national income and product accounts (NIPAs) currently use the year 2000 as the base period. Rebasing changes the reference year (or base year) for the real (chained dollar and quantity index) estimates and price indexes and expresses GDP and other NIPA aggregates in terms of the prices of one year. The effect of rebasing is to produce chained-dollar estimates that are closer to additive for periods near the new base year. It is important to note that percentage changes based upon chain-type indexes are not affected by rebasing.

    Generally, the year selected as the reference year is the latest year that will not be revised until the next comprehensive update. For the 2018 comprehensive update, real estimates were rebased from chained (2005) dollars to chained (2012) dollars.

    10 Sam’s Mouse Traps

    Drama is what keeps us watching. Sometimes it’s worth the story to show a big win, but other times it’s not. Viewers enjoy the ups and downs of the fish that got away or the fish that was stolen by a bear far more than watching someone thrive and survive off the land. Finalist Sam says, “There are a lot of things that I wish would have made the cut. I went on a multi-day fishing trip where I walked about a mile upriver to catch the spawning salmon. I found them, got one, and lived off of it for a few days. I remember being so proud of that salmon, and the effort I made to get it. Lots of other things as well, but the fishing trip was the big thing.”

    Digging History 8: The Regal Period - History

    Conceived and built during the Great Depression, The Pennsylvania Turnpike is the Grandfather of the Interstate Highway System. The original roadway was a scant 160 miles long, running from Irwin, just east of Pittsburgh to Middlesex, just west of Harrisburg, Pa. This 160 mile piece of roadway, however, revolutionized automobile travel in the United States. The Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first roadway in the United States that had no cross streets, no railroad crossings, and no traffic lights over its entire length. A trip through the mountains of Pennsylvania with grades of no more than 3% was unheard of prior to this time. A four-lane superhighway through the Allegheny Mountains with unrestricted passing (except through tunnels), the Pennsylvania Turnpike even made the pages of Scientific American due to its state-of-the-art design and construction. One of the hallmarks of the original turnpike were the seven tunnels bored through the mountains of Pennsylvania. A trip on the turnpike with its seven tunnels was an exciting part of many family vacations in the days when only a handful of super-highways existed. Now that we have a nation-wide system of the toll-free Interstate Highways it is difficult to imagine how special a trip on the turnpike was back then.

    The Pennsylvania Turnpike didn't actually start out as an idea for a superhighway. It really had its birth in the 1880's as a railroad conceived by William Vanderbilt of the New York Central Railroad and was intended to be competition for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Known as the South Pennsylvania Railroad, construction started late in 1883 and continued for two years. Nine tunnels were partially bored and 120 miles of roadbed were graded. Eventually, however, interest in the venture waned and in 1885, all work ground to a halt. For the next 50 years the abandoned right-of-way sat dormant until the the need for jobs during the great depression and growing popularity of the automobile helped push forth the idea of a super-highway using the old rail route.
    View looking east through the eastern Kittatinny Tunnel portal to the Blue Mountain Tunnel portal. The valley between the two ridges is Gunter Valley, and there is only about 600 feet between the tunnels

    During the roaring 20's, the automobile was beginning to come of age along with a prosperity that appeared would last forever. All of this came to an abrupt end, however, with the stock market crash of 1929 and the great depression of the 1930's. Unemployment was at a level never seen before, and Pennsylvania with her industry was hard hit. Several influential men who, as young boys, had played in the unfinished Vanderbilt tunnels began to toss around the idea of building a super-highway through the Allegheny Mountains of Pennsylvania to link Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. A perfect opportunity to give the local economy a shot in the arm both through jobs and a vastly superior transportation link between Pennsylvania's principal cities seemed an ideal project.

    Through the involvement of Victor Lecoq and William Sutherland of the Pennsylvania Motor Truck Association, and state Representative Cliff Patterson, a study was commissioned to investigate the feasibility of a super-highway through the state. Using federal funds from the Works Progress Administration (WPA), teams of survey crews began scouring the mountains of central Pennsylvania in early 1936.
    Arial view of the Blue Mountain interchange looking east at the time of the turnpike's opening.

    The reports of the survey crews were favorable, and in 1937 the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission was established with Walter A. Jones of Pittsburgh named the first commission chairman. The Turnpike Commission was given authorization to construct a 160-mile long 4-lane limited access superhighway through the Allegheny Mountains from Irwin (just east of Pittsburgh in Westmoreland County) to Carlisle (just west of Harrisburg in Cumberland County). This highway was the first of its kind in the United States.

    Nobody had ever seen a road like this before, except at the General Motors Futurama exhibit at the 1939 New York Worlds Fair. Design features for the new road were:

    Four 12-foot wide concrete traffic lanes - two in each direction
    10 foot wide median strip and 10 foot wide berms
    3 percent maximum grades (normal grades for roads through the mountains were 6-12 percent)
    Maximum curvature of 6 degrees (most curves were 3-4 degrees)
    Limited access design with 1,200 foot long entrance and exit lanes
    Ten service plazas located along the right-of-way for traveler convenience
    No cross streets, traffic signals, driveways or railroad grade crossings
    11 Interchanges located (west to east) at Irwin, New Stanton, Donegal, Somerset, Bedford, Breezewood, Fort Littleton, Willow Hill, Blue Mountain, Carlisle, and Middlesex

    The most impressive and conspicuous features of the Turnpike were the seven tunnels, with a combined length of nearly seven miles. The use of these tunnels would cut the cumulative climb between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg from nearly 14,000 feet traveling on U.S. Route 30 to under 4,000 feet. As one traveled from west to east tunnels were:

    Laurel Hill Tunnel: Length: 4,541 ft.
    Allegheny Mountain Tunnel: Length: 6,070 ft.
    Ray's Hill Tunnel: Length: 3,532 ft.
    Sideling Hill Tunnel: Length: 6,782 ft.
    Tuscorora Mountain Tunnel: Length: 5,326 ft.
    Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel: Length: 4,727 ft.
    Blue Mountain Tunnel: Length: 4,339 ft.

    The tunnels had large ventilation fans at each portal to keep carbon monoxide levels inside the tunnels at levels safe for motorists. (Ray's hill, the shortest of the turnpike's tunnels had ventilation fans at only one portal). Two of the original South Pennsylvania tunnels, the Quemahoning and Negro Mountain Tunnels were bypassed with open cuts near the tunnels.

    Western Portal of Tuscarora Tunnel shortly before the opening of the Turnpike in 1940

    Ground breaking ceremonies for the new road were held on October 27, 1938 on a farm in Cumberland County, and 9 months later the entire road was under contract. Concrete paving began in August of 1939, but inclement weather in early 1940 prevented paving so that by the spring of that year only 13 miles of roadway had been poured in concrete. As summer neared, however, the rate of completion increased to as much as 3 1/2 miles a day. Progress in the tunnels was obviously at a much slower rate and varied from about 11 to 36 feet per day, depending upon the amount and hardness of the rock that needed removed. None of the original Vanderbilt tunnels had been holed through back in 1885, and the tunnel which was most nearly holed through was at Kittatinny Mountain with about 550 feet remaining to be excavated. The remaining 550 feet of the Kittatinny Tunnel caused a lot of problems so it wasn't holed through first. The first tunnel to be "holed through" was the shortest: Ray's Hill on January 22, 1940. Consideration was given to building an eighth tunnel through Clear Ridge, just east of Everett, however, it was decided to dig a 150 foot-deep cut instead. This was the deepest highway cut in the United States at the time, and required the removal of approximately 1.1 million cubic yards of rock. The Clear Ridge Cut was dubbed "Little Panama" to capitalize on the famed Panama Canal, but the comparison was laughable since the amount of rock taken out of Clear Ridge could not come close to comparing to the more than 200 million tons excavated for the Panama Canal.

    Besides the tunnels, the turnpike also had over 300 bridges and culverts. The longest of these was just east of the New Stanton Interchange and was a graceful curved bridge over 600 feet long. One of the requirements of the federal grants was that the turnpike was to be substantially completed by June 29, 1940. As spring turned into summer, it was rumored that Franklin Roosevelt would be on hand to open the highway on July 4, but that date came and went without the road being completed due to weather. Nearly three more months would pass before the road opened, and it was done so without ceremony. The Pennsylvania Turnpike opened at 12:01 A.M. on October 1, 1940 with only 12 hours notice.
    Arial view of the New Stanton interchange and the New Stanton Viaduct. The gracefully curved viaduct was the longest bridge on the original turnpike at 660 feet.

    Whether the Pennsylvania Turnpike could generate enough revenues from the collection of tolls was the subject of many a debate prior to its opening. The commission estimated that 1.3 million vehicles per year would use the new road while critics made estimates of as low as 260,000 vehicles per year. Using the turnpike cut the normal 5 1/2 hour trip between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh to about 2 1/2 hours, and from the very beginning the tremendous advantage in time savings generated traffic volume much greater than even the original planners and envisioned in spite of the tolls.

    Traffic the first few days the Turnpike was open averaged about 6,000 vehicles per day. Sunday, October 6 was the first opportunity many people had to drive on the new road, and the Turnpike Commission was not prepared to handle the onslaught of people wanting to take advantage of that opportunity. Toll booths were thrown into pandemonium as thousands of Sunday afternoon sightseers tried to get off the Turnpike. Traffic was backed up for miles at some of the interchanges while toll booth attendants tried to collect tolls and return change. The traffic tie-ups were finally broken around 11:00 that night after an astounding 27,000 vehicles had used the new highway during the day. The following week the commission added temporary toll booths for fare collection at the interchanges, and those preparations paid off as about 30,000 vehicles used the road the following Sunday, but without the traffic backups of the previous weekend.

    Initially, the Turnpike had no speed limit. Over the first several months, however, it became obvious that relying on mere common sense and nerve was not desirable and in April of 1941 a speed limit of 70 MPH was imposed (except for a 35 MPH speed limit in the tunnels). Even with the imposed speed limit, the advantages of the Turnpike over the other two main routes (State Route 22 and U.S. Route 30) were remarkable.
    View looking through the eastern portal of the Blue Mountain Tunnel at the time of the Turnpike's opening

    The Turnpike had only been open for a little over a year when the United States was drawn into World War II, and for the next four years the volume of traffic on the Turnpike was drastically curtailed, as was traffic elsewhere during the war. Because of the strategic value of the turnpike, special details of state troopers were stationed at the tunnels to stop any suspicious vehicles from entering the tunnels. Shortly after the war ended, however, traffic mushroomed and plans were made to extend the turnpike to Philadelphia and Ohio. The eastern extension to Philadelphia opened in November 1950 and the Western extension opened in stages in 1951. Traffic volume in 1950 reached 4.4 million vehicles - nearly 3 1/2 times what the planners had originally envisioned. In 1952 with both extensions open, traffic volume ballooned to 11 million vehicles. Taking into consideration the longer route (327 miles vs. the original 160 miles), this gave a traffic density of over 4 times the original estimates for the Turnpike.

    Further plans were made to extend the turnpike across the Delaware River to connect with the New Jersey turnpike, and to extend the turnpike from a point near Norristown north to Scranton. These projects were completed in 1956 and 1957, respectively. The Northeastern Extension to Scranton required an eighth tunnel on the system through Blue Mountain. Since there was already a Blue Mountain tunnel on the system, the new tunnel was named the Lehigh tunnel because it is located along the northern border of Lehigh county. These were the last route expansion projects the commission undertook for 30 years because in 1956, President Eisenhower signed the Interstate Highway Act, putting an end to toll road construction in the U.S.
    View of the Western Approach to Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel

    By the 20th anniversary of the Turnpike, annual usage was 31 million vehicles over 470 route miles with a traffic density of about 8 times what the original planners had anticipated. Traffic tie-ups were occurring at the tunnel entrances and Laurel Hill Tunnel was a particularly troublesome spot. East-bound traffic had a seven mile climb approaching the tunnel and then had to squeeze down to one lane causing traffic back-ups stretching as much a five miles from the tunnel portal. Waits of 3 hours or more to get through Laurel Hill were not uncommon. Bottlenecks at the other six tunnels, while not as serious as Laurel Hill, were nonetheless troublesome. With competition from more modern east-west routes such as the New York Thruway and the future "Keystone Shortway" (Interstate 80), it was apparent that the Turnpike Commission needed to turn to making internal improvements.

    The first of those improvements was to bypass the Laurel Hill Tunnel by routing the turnpike over Laurel Hill through a large cut to the north of the tunnel. The bypass featured a third lane for trucks and still maintained a maximum 3% grade as on the rest of the turnpike. The bypass required a massive 145-foot deep cut through Laurel Hill and the removal of 5.5 million cubic yards of rock - about 5 times that taken out of Clear Ridge. The bypass opened in 1964 and Laurel Hill Tunnel was closed.
    The eastern portal of the Laurel Hill Tunnel as it appears today about 35 years after it was abandoned.

    The second improvement was the addition of a second bore through Allegheny Mountain 125 feet to the south of the original tunnel. The interior walls of the new tunnel were lined with white ceramic tile for better visibility (the original tunnels had walls of exposed concrete) and more powerful ventilation fans. After the new tunnel was completed, the original Allegheny Tunnel was closed down for reconstruction. Both tunnels were open to traffic in 1966 providing 4-lane tunnel passage for the first time on the turnpike. Engineering studies also indicated that the most economical way to handle the tunnel bottlenecks at Tuscarora, Kittatinny and Blue Mountain Tunnels was to add parallel tunnels. Tunnels were added just south of the existing tunnels at Blue and Kittatinny Mountain and just north of the Tuscarora Mountina Tunnels.

    Two more tunnels remained. Rays Hill and Sideling Hill tunnels were the shortest and longest tunnels on the turnpike respectively and lay about 5 miles apart just east of Breezewood. Rays Hill and Sideling Hill are joined by a ridge south of the existing turnpike and the two tunnels' close proximity to each other made it feasible to build a single 13-mile long bypass that would eliminate both tunnels. The bypass diverts from the original road just west of the original Breezewood interchange and climbs the western side of Rays Hill south of the old right-of-way. After cresting Rays Hill, the bypass runs parallel to the original road along the top of a ridge for a few miles before crossing over to the north side of the old turnpike a few hundred feet north of the eastern portal of the Sideling Hill Tunnel. The bypass joins the original road several miles to the east of Sideling Hill.
    Eastern portal of the Ray's Hill Tunnel as it looks today. Notice that this portal has no equipment room to house ventilation fans. This was the shortest tunnel on the Turnpike, and as such presumably needed only one set of ventilation fans.

    Please watch this site for possible future developments.

    Michael G. Koerner - Topographical Maps of abandoned sections of the turnpike

    Michael Natale - Some pictures of the original Ray's Hill - Sideling Hill section

    South Penn Railroad - some history on the South Penn

    Jeff Taylor - Several great pictures of the abandoned turnpike around Ray's Hill & Sideling hill

    Charlie - Some links and a couple of pictures

    John Duffy - Some interesting pictures of the old turnpike at the Ray's Hill - Sideling Hill bypass

    NebulaSearch - A brief synopsis of the Turnpike with several links to various Turnpike sites

    Digging History 8: The Regal Period - History

    The regal or royal walnut moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius), is one of our largest and most spectacular moths. Like most other moths, it is nocturnal but is sometimes observed at lights. The imposing larva, known as the hickory horned devil, is most often observed when it is full grown and comes down from the trees to wander in search of a site for pupation.

    Figure 1. Hickory horned devil caterpillar, of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius), showing size in relation to an adult human's hand. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

    The regal moth is a beautiful and fascinating member of our native fauna, and its larvae should not be killed. If a larva is found crawling on pavement or in an area of thick turf grass where it would have difficulty burrowing, it should be moved to an area of soft soil or a mulched area where it can burrow for pupation.

    Distribution (Back to Top)

    The regal moth is found throughout the deciduous forest areas of the eastern United States from New Jersey to Missouri and southward to eastern Texas and central Florida (Wagner 2005). It is more common in the southern part of its distribution. Historically, it was found north to Massachusetts and seems to be declining in numbers in other parts of its range (Wagner 2005).

    Figure 2. Regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius), distribution map.

    Description (Back to Top)

    Adult: The regal moth has a wingspan of 9.5 to 15.5 cm (Covell 2005). Females are larger than males. The forewings are gray to gray-green with orange veins and a row of seven to nine yellow spots near the distal margin. There also are single yellow discal and basal spots. The hind wing is mostly orange with a basal yellow spot and yellow patches (or spots) on the costal and anal margins. The hind wing may also have one to two rows of gray-green spots. The body is orange with narrow yellow banding.

    Figure 3. Adult regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.

    Larva: The hickory horned devil is among the largest of our native saturniid caterpillars. It is 12.5 to 14 cm in length - about the size of a large hot dog. The caterpillars vary slightly in color, but are commonly blue-green. The second and third thoracic segments each bear two long and two shorter orange, black-tipped scoli (tubercles in the form of spinose projections of the body wall). The abdominal segments each have four short, black scoli, and segments 2 through 8 have a pale, oblique lateral stripe. Although the larva has a fierce appearance, it is harmless.

    Figure 4. Fully grown hickory horned devil caterpillar, of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

    Figure 5. Close-up of the head of a fully grown hickory horned devil caterpillar of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Clemson University, www.insectimages.org.

    Figure 6. Larva of the pine devil, Citheronia sepulcralis Grote & Robinson, which is sometimes mistaken for the hickory horned devil caterpillar of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

    Life Cycle (Back to Top)

    The regal moth typically has only a single generation per year, although a few late collection records suggest the possibility of a small second brood in the deep south. In Florida, adults have been collected in May, but are more common during the summer. Adults have vestigial mouthparts. Adults mate during the second evening after emergence and begin oviposition at dusk of the third evening. Eggs hatch in six to 10 days, and the duration of the larval stage is about 35 days. In central Florida, larvae are usually found from late July to mid-August while they are wandering on the ground searching for a suitable location to burrow into the soil for pupation. The pupa is the overwintering stage.

    Worth (1979) reported that a small number of regal moth pupae diapaused through two winters. Locality (or latitude) where the parent moths were collected was not given, but the author&rsquos address was listed as New Jersey.

    Figure 7. Pupa (bottom) of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius), and the exuviae (cast skin) (top) of the last larval instar. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

    Hosts (Back to Top)

    Larvae have been reported from a variety of host tree species. They are commonly found on species of the family (Juglandaceae) including walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut or white walnut (Juglans cinerea), and a variety of hickories (Carya spp.) including pecan.. Other hosts commonly listed are persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and sumacs (Rhus spp.). Of these latter three host plants, Worth et al. (1979 & 1982) reported that larvae grew faster and larger on persimmon. For detailed host lists, see Heppner (2003) and Robinson et al. (undated).

    Figure 8. Pignut hickory, Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, a host of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.

    Figure 9. Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., a host of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.

    Figure 10. Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana L., a host of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.

    Figure 11. Winged sumac, Rhus copallinum L., a host of the regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.

    Natural Enemies (Back to Top)

    At least six species of tachinid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae) (Arnaud 1978, Peigler 1994), one species of sarcophagid fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) (Peigler 1994), and one species of braconid wasp (Krombein & Hurd 1979) have been reported from Citheronia regalis.

    Tachinid parasitoids of Citheronia regalis

    Belvosia argentifrons Aldrich (Peigler 1994, p. 78)
    Belvosia bifasciata (Fabricius) (Arnaud 1978, p. 610)
    Belvosia townsendi Aldrich (Arnaud 1978, p. 610)
    Lespesia frenchii Williston (Arnaud 1978, p. 610)
    Winthemia citheroniae (Sabrosky) (Arnaud 1978, p. 610)

    Sarcophagid parasitoid of Citheronia regalis

    Sarcophaga lambens Wiedemann (Peigler 1994, p. 97)

    Braconid parasitoid of Citheronia regalis

    Cotesia teleae (Muesebeck) (Krombein et al. 1979, p. 255)

    Figure 12. Unidentified sarcophagid fly parasitoids (left) consuming the pupa of a regal moth, Citheronia regalis (Fabricius). The adult fly is at right. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

    Selected References (Back to Top)

    • Arnaud PH. 1978. A Host-Parasite Catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 1319. Washington, D.C.
    • Arnett RH Jr. 1985. American Insects. Van Nostrand Reinold Company, Inc. New York. p. 587.
    • Covell CV. 2005. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Virginia Museum of Natural History. Special Publication Number 12. Martinsville, VA. 496 pp.
    • Ferguson DC. 1971. The Moths of North America. E.W. Classey Ltd. Middlesex, England. pp. 32-33.
    • Heppner JB. 2003. Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and Catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp.
    • Krombein KV, Hurd Jr.PD, Smith DR, Burks BD. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 1. Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica). Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 1198 pp.
    • North American Moth Photographers Group. http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/species.php?hodges=7706
    • Peigler RS. 1994. Catalog of parasitoids of Saturniidae of the world. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 33: 1-121.
    • Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernández LM. HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants.
    • Stehr FW. 1987. Immature Insects. Vol. 1. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, IA. p. 515.
    • Tuskes PM, Tuttle JP, Collins MM. 1996. The Wild Silk Moths of North America. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY. 250 pp.
    • Wagner DL. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. 512 pp.
    • Worth CB. 1979. Doubly overwintering Citheronia regalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 33(3): 166.
    • Worth CB, Williams TF, Platt AP, Bradley BP. 1979. Differential growth among larvae of Citheronia regalis (Saturniidae) on three genera of foodplants. Journal of the Lepidopterists&rsquo Society 33(3): 162-166.
    • Worth CB, Platt AP, Williams TF. 1982. Differential growth and utilization of three foodplants by first instar larvae of Citheronia regalis (Saturniidae). Journal of the Lepidoptera Society 36: 76-82.

    Author: Donald W. Hall, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida
    Photographs by: Donald W. Hall and Lyle J. Buss, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida Clemson University
    Web Design: Don Wasik, Jane Medley
    Publication Number: EENY-52
    Publication Date: September 1998. Latest revision: March 2021.

    Watch the video: The Lapis Niger - Myth at the Heart of the Roman Empire 57 (July 2022).


  1. Tojalmaran

    Excuse, it is removed

  2. Shaiming

    I am sorry, that has interfered... I understand this question. Let's discuss. Write here or in PM.

  3. Nikko

    I think he is wrong. We need to discuss. Write to me in PM, it talks to you.

  4. Odanodan

    Is there any alternative?

  5. Washburne

    The less you will be on the Internet, the children will be healthier! Any life begins at the end. Better hi in hand than n @ yes on the horizon ... Better to be the first Maya than the eighth Martha! .. Lecture is not an erection. Let's put it off. (Student wisdom).

Write a message