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Rainier II AE-5 - History

Rainier II AE-5 - History


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Ranier II

(AE-5: dp. 13,876 (f.~; 1. 459'; b. 63', dr. 25'10", s. 15.5 k. cpl. 281; a. 1 5", 4 3", 4 40mm., 10 20mm.; el. Lassen T. C2-T Cargo)

The second Rainier (AE-5) was laid down on 14 May 1940 by the Tampa Shipbuilding Co., Tampa, Fla., as Rainbow (MC hul1 1244; launched I March 1941, sponsored by Mrs. Robert E. Anderson; transferred to the Navy 16 April 1941 converted for use as an ammunition auxiliary, and commissioned as Rainier (AE-5) on 21 December 1941 at Norfolk Va., Capt. William W. Meek in command

After a 6-week shakedown in Cuban waters, Rainier transited the Panama Canal and reported to Commander Service Foree, Pacific Fleet. Between February and May 1942, she made two ammunition runs from Port Chicago Calif., to Pearl llarbor, whence, on 10 May, she steamed for Tongatabu. There through the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, she offloaded her cargo for transfer to shore depots and issued ammunition to Allied ships, particularly task forces 18, 15, and 16. At the end of July, she shifted to the Fijis to supply ships preparing for Operation "Watchtower," the assault on the Solomons. Then, on 5 August, she continued on to Noumea, New Caledonia, where she remained through the initial phases of the Guadaleanal campaign.

On 24 September Rainier moved southeast to Auckland and on the 27th headed back to the United States. For the remainder of the year and into 1943, she made ammunition and general cargo runs hetween the west coast and Hau-aii. At the end of February she sailed onee more for the South Pacific

She arrived at Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides on 17 March and remained until 5 May. She then shifted to Efate where she offloaded her remaining torpedoes and ammunition took on empty shel1 eases and damaged ammunition, and un the 14th got underway to return to San Francisco and another 5 months of west coast-Hawaii shuttle operations.

On 25 October, she headed haek to Efate. Arriving on 11 November, just prior to the Gilbert Islands campaign, she discharged general and ammunition cargo in Havannah Harbor into December. On the 21st, she shifted to Espiritu Santo, thence proceeded to Funafuti in the Elliee group. There she issued ammunition to ships of the fast carrier forces, to the defense forces of the occupied areas, and to the forres preparing for the Marshalls offensive.

On 31 January 1944, Majuro was occupied and u-ork was begun to turn the atoll into a major advance base. Rainier arrived in the lagoon three day later. In mid April she returned to San Francisco. At the end of May, she uas hack at Majuro to rearm thc fast carrier forces prior to strikes supporting the initial assault on Saipan. On 11 June, as the assault force moved toward Saipan, Rainier shifted to Eniwetok, whence, in mid-July, she steamed to Saipan. On 30 Julv she sailed east again, completed an abbreviated overhaul at San Francisco, filled her holds at Port Chicago
and returned to 1,Einetok on 31 Octoher.

The Philippine campaign had started and the fast carrier forces were striking at Japanese positions and shipping from Indoehina to the Ryukyus. Rainier moved west, to the western Carolines. On 5 November she arrived at Ulithi where she remained until after Okinawa operations uere weli underway. On 25 May 1945, the ammunition ship headed for the Philippines, where she served the Allies from the 28th until after the signing of the surrender documents.

Assigned to support occupation forces, Rainier steamed for Okinawa in mid September. On 6 December she sailed for the United States, arriving at Port Angeles, Wash., on the 23d. With the new year, 1946, she began preparations for inactivation. In the spring she shifted to San Diego; decommissioned there on 30 August, and was berthed with the Pacific Reserve Fleet through the end of the decade.

In June 1950 the North Korean Army crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded the Republie of South Korea. United States and other United Nations forces deployed to bolster South Korean forces attempting to slow the advance of the Communists. Supplies, however, were inadequate. Munitions depots in the Far East and in Micronesia were limited in quantity and type. Mount Katmai was the only ammunition ship active in the Pacific.

Ammunition facilities on the west coast were expanded. As MSTS and the Maritime Administration were pressed for cargo space, reserve fleet ships were ordered activated.

Rainier recommissioned 25 May 1951, but remained in the eastern Pacific for 6 months. On 3 November she sailed west.

Through December of that year and into the summer of 1952, she operated out of Sasebo, carrying her vital cargo to replenishment areas off the coast of the embattled Korean peninsula and to shore facilities at Pohang and Pusan. In September she returned to California for overhaul, but was back in Korean waters to resupply United Nations naval forces in early February 1953.

The end of July 1953 brought an uneasy truce, and in August Rainier headed back to the United States. In November, however, she returned to the Far East on her first peacetime, 6-month WestPae deployment. Through 1955 her annual deployments included shuttle runs between Japanese ports and 7th Fleet replenishment areas in waters off Japan and Korea. In 1956 her operating schedule was expanded and into the 1960's included operations in the Philippine area out of Subie Bay.

In 1964, as the war in Vietnam expanded, Subie Bay became the focal point of Rainier's 7th Fleet support activities. There when the Tonkin Gulf crisis ocourred, 4-5 August, she put to sea immediately and steamed to the gulf to rearm carriers condueting strikes on North Vietnamese bases.

For the next months, Rainier operated between Subie Bay and replenishment areas off Vietnam. In late October, she sailed for Japan and in December she arrived back at her homeport, Concord, Calif. In the late spring of 1965, she resumed 7th Fleet operations and by Januarv 1966 had transferred at sea almost 12,000 tons of ammunition, 83 tons of freight, and 11,500 pounds of mail. In February she returned to Coneord. In April, she moved to San Francisco for overhaul and, in August, began refresher training Wit]l new equipment aboard which increased her underway replenishment capabllitles.

In Fehruary 1967, Rainier resumed her annual deployments to provide underway logistic support to the 7th Fleet. By 16 September, the date of her last at-sea munitions transfer on that tour she had transferred 13,000 tons during 204 underway repienishments.

Departing Subic Bay on 25 September for her homeport Rainier touched at Yokosuka, and Pearl Harbor before arriving at Coneord on 25 October. Throughout the remainder of 1967 and the first half of 1968, Rainier conducted independent underway replenishment exercises and participated in fleet exercises along the southern California coast.

On 29 June she departed Coneord for the western Pacific arriving at Subie Bay on 21 July. Following a week in port Rainier got underway for her first replenishment cycle. It was during this first eyele that she was awarded the Battle Effieienev "E" for fiscal year 1968. On 21 Novemher, during her sixth line year, Rainier established her best underway replenishment record by transferring 826 tons to Camden (AOE-2) in a 5-hour period. By the end of the year the converted World `War II C-2 cargo ship had transferred more than 11,000 tons in support of carriers, their escorts, and SAR vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin and to gunfire support and coastal surveillance units operating along South Vietnam's coast.

Rainier returned to Coneord in February 1969 and following 6 months of operations along the west coast, onee again deployed for the western Pacific. Upon completion of her last tour off Vietnam in January 1970, Rainier sailed for home and preparation for inactivation. She was decommissioned and struck from the Navy list on 7 August ]970.

Rainier (AE-5) earned four battle stars during the Korean Conflict and eight off Vietnam.


World War II [ edit | edit source ]

After a 6-week shakedown in Cuban waters, Rainier transited the Panama Canal and reported to Commander, Service Force, Pacific Fleet. Between February and May 1942, she made two ammunition runs from Port Chicago, Calif., to Pearl Harbor, whence, on 10 May, she steamed for Tongatapu. There, through the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, she offloaded her cargo for transfer to shore depots and issued ammunition to Allied ships, particularly task forces 18, 15, and 16. At the end of July, she shifted to the Fijis to supply ships preparing for Operation Watchtower, the assault on the Solomons. Then, on 5 August, she continued on to Noumea, New Caledonia, where she remained through the initial phases of the Guadalcanal campaign.

On 24 September, Rainier moved southeast to Auckland and on the 27 September headed back to the United States. For the remainder of the year and into 1943, she made ammunition and general cargo runs between the west coast and Hawaii. At the end of February, she sailed once more for the South Pacific.

She arrived at Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides on 17 March and remained until 5 May. She then shifted to Efate where she offloaded her remaining torpedoes and ammunition took on empty shell cases and damaged ammunition and on the 14th got underway to return to San Francisco and another 5 months of west coast-Hawaii shuttle operations.

On 25 October, she headed back to Efate. Arriving on 11 November, just prior to the Gilbert Islands campaign, she discharged general and ammunition cargo in Havannah Harbor into December. On the 21st, she shifted to Espiritu Santo thence proceeded to Funafuti in the Ellice group. There, she issued ammunition to ships of the fast carrier forces, to the defense forces of the occupied areas, and to the forces preparing for the Marshalls offensive.

On 31 January 1944, Majuro was occupied and work was begun to turn the atoll into a major advance base. Rainier arrived in the lagoon three day later. In mid-April, she returned to San Francisco. At the end of May, she was back at Majuro to rearm the fast carrier forces prior to strikes supporting the initial assault on Saipan. On 11 June, as the assault force moved toward Saipan, Rainier shifted to Eniwetok, whence, in mid-July, she steamed to Saipan. On 30 July, she sailed east again completed an abbreviated overhaul at San Francisco filled her holds at Port Chicago and returned to Eniwetok on 31 October.

The Philippine campaign had started and the fast carrier forces were striking at Japanese positions and shipping from Indochina to the Ryukyus. Rainier moved west, to the western Carolines. On 5 November, she arrived at Ulithi, where she remained until after Okinawa operations were well underway. On 25 May 1945, the ammunition ship headed for the Philippines, where she served the Allies from the 28th until after the signing of the surrender documents.

Assigned to support occupation forces, Rainier steamed for Okinawa in mid-September. On 6 December, she sailed for the United States, arriving at Port Angeles, on the 23 December. With the new year, 1946, she began preparations for inactivation. In the spring she shifted to San Diego decommissioned there on 30 August, and was berthed with the Pacific Reserve Fleet through the end of the decade.


WWII Training in Mt. Rainier National Park

Over the course of World War II, Mount Rainier National Park served as a winter training and testing ground for the U.S. Army’s 10th Mountain Division and other military units. Cold weather testing and training on Mt. Rainier prepared the 'Old 10th' for their legendary march through the mountains of Italy. Driving the Germans out of their mountain strongholds and cutting off their retreat hastened the end of the War in Europe.

Mount Rainier attracted the military for the same basic reason that it attracted natural scientists and tourists: it stood out as an "arctic island in a temperate sea." The vertical zones that made the fauna and flora of Mount Rainier so diverse and beautiful also made the area a good place to find terrain and weather conditions which could simulating conditions in the European Alps and the European winter. Snow and inclement weather were abundant, and if Army officers found the weather at Paradise too mild for their purposes, they only had to march their soldiers higher up the mountain to test cold-weather clothing and equipment under the most severe conditions. Men tested sleeping bags and snow suits on the summit of Mount Rainier. They did sentry duty at night wearing a kind of sleeping bag with legs and feet. One party of ski troops made a circuit around the mountain carrying rifles and 85-pound packs

The Army found Mount Rainier an attractive ground for mountain infantry exercises because of its location near Fort Lewis, too. Established as an Army training camp in World War I, Fort Lewis survived the Army's lean years in the 1920s and 1930s to become one of the major Army installations on the West Coast in World War II. In the 1930s, the commanding officer of Fort Lewis had cooperated with Superintendent Tomlinson of Mount Rainier National Park on the administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Still, despite the Army's longtime presence nearby, the use of Mount Rainier for mountain infantry exercises developed fairly suddenly.

On a November day in 1940, a platoon of the 41st Infantry Division, calling itself the Military Ski Patrol, arrived at Paradise for a "preliminary instruction exercise," accompanied by public relations officers and a photographer from the Seattle Post Intelligencer. The four--hour visit heralded a full winter of ski training and maneuvers by a second "Military Ski Patrol"—twenty-four soldiers of the 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, also based at Fort Lewis. These soldiers were quartered in government housing at Longmire.

European Winter Wars Inform The U.S. Army

Military ski unit training at Mount Rainier National Park.

The two military ski patrols from Fort Lewis were of an experimental nature this was the first time in the history of the U.S. Army that soldiering and skiing were being combined. With the possibility growing that the U.S. Army would be called to fight in central Europe, Army officials began to contemplate the need for specialized mountain units. The idea was given a special impetus by the impressive performance of Finnish ski troops in the Winter War of 1939-40. In that conflict, the greatly outnumbered Finns deployed swift-moving, lightly-armed, ski troops with deadly effect against the ponderous Soviet Army. Photographs of Finnish soldiers on skis gained wide circulation in the American press.

Following exploratory discussions with the presidents of the National Ski Association and the National Ski Patrol during the summer of 1940, the Army initiated military ski exercises with small groups of volunteers at Mount Rainier and at Lake Placid, New York Old Forge, New York Camp McCoy, Wisconsin and Fort Richardson, Alaska. The first regiment of ski troops, the 87th Mountain Infantry, was formed at Fort Lewis the following November. Army units in all parts of the country sent their crack skiers to the new regiment. In December of 1940, Lt. John Woodward, noted skier and mountaineer and formerly captain of the University of Washington ski team, enters active duty with a ski patrol in the 3rd Division’s 15th Regiment, at Fort Lewis, WA. The patrol spends the winter of 1940-41 at Longmire, near Mt. Rainier. At the end of the winter, Woodward leads a patrol that circumnavigates Mt. Rainier. In March he is temporarily assigned to the 41st Division Ski Patrol. There he leads a two-week winter expedition into the Olympic Mountains.

Meanwhile, the War Department entered an agreement with the National Ski Patrol, a civilian organization, to recruit experienced skiers for the special unit. New England ski clubs and Ivy League ski teams provided numerous volunteers. Many European immigrants and exiles joined the 87th Mountain, prompting one writer to call it a virtual foreign legion. The U.S. Forest Service and the NPS contributed more than 20 rangers to the new regiments.

In November of 1941, a platoon from the 41st Division Military Ski Patrol came to Mt. Rainier for a preliminary instruction exercise.’ The following month a detachment from the 15th Infantry (the ‘Can-do Regiment Ski patrol) arrived to spend most of the winter of 1941-42 training in skiing and maneuvers. The high point of their training was a 55 mile, 6 day ski trip.

Training Begins and Evolves

Ski troops drill at Paradise in Mt. Rainier National Park.

The thousand-man regiment wintered at Fort Lewis during the winter of 1941-42 and sent contingents to train at Paradise under a cooperative agreement with the NPS. In a noteworthy compromise, ski troops claimed full use of the rope tow above Paradise Inn on week-days and yielded the ground to park visitors on weekends. The Army rented and occupied the Paradise Lodge and Tatoosh Club facilities. The Mountain Battalion’s experiences there inspire new verses for an old western ballad quickly adopted by the ski troops. In the song, trooper Sven’s heavy weapons company trains on snowshoes and thus spends “two months in Paradise and never learned to ski,” while “the Winter Warfare Board waited anxiously about.” (Actually, the Board was busy testing new winter rations, clothing, equipment, and over-snow transportation.)

In the spring of 1942, the 87th Mountain transferred to the Army's new Camp Hale, located on the Continental Divide in Colorado, where it formed part of the 10th Mountain Infantry Division. In May, an expedition climbs to the summit of Mt. Rainier, an event filmed by Lt. John C. Jay, who has already produced ski-training films for the U.S. Army. After the war, Jay will become a legendary maker of ski films. More Army units were dispatched to Mount Rainier for special training in the fall of 1943.

Over the course of World War II, training would be expanded to included a 100-man detachment of ski troops from the 10th Mountain Infantry Division, a 150-man force from the 938th Aviation Engineers who undertook snow camouflage tests, and a 30-man unit of photographers from the Army Signal Corps who made an army training film. Cold weather units testing long skis over short, soft boots over hard, tight boots versus loose boots, winter food rations, and many different types of fabric for livable tents in below-zero temperatures.

National Park Service Rangers provided unique support to the training units by leading classes on mountaineering, search and rescue, meteorology, glaciers, avalanches, forest fires and geology.

The Legacy of 10th Mountain Division

These units pulled out by the end of November 1943, ending Mount Rainier's role in World War II as a training and testing ground.The 10th Mountain Division was the only unit of kind in the US. Later in the war was involved in retaking the Aleutian Island of Kiska from the occupying Japanese Army, a site currently preserved by WWII Valor in the Pacific National Historic Park.

At the beginning of 1945, the 10th Mountain left ports in Virginia to deploy to the front lines in the mountains of Italy. In cooperation with allied units, the 10th Mountain sustained heavy fighting as they dislodged the germans from artillery positions throughout the Apennines, clearing some of the mountains highest peaks to allow for allied forces to advance. Succeeding where other divisions had failed, the 86th Mountain Infantry assaulted Riva Ridge through a 1,500 vertical assent nighttime attack. Considered unscalable by the Germans, the February, 1945 attack succeeded.

The 85th and 87th regiments assaulting the heavily manned and mined German stronghold of Mt. Belvedere next. Surprising the Germans again with a bayonet attack without covering artillery fire, the peak was captured. Seven german counterattacks followed over the next three days costing the 10th Mountain Division 850 casulaties. But the Division held the mountain.

Final advances into the Po Valley cost the Division dearly, but broke the German lines. By April, the 87th Mountain Infantry crossed the Po River under heavy fire in 50 light canvas assault boats. At the foothills of the Alps within days, the Division cut the German Army’s main escape routes through the Brenner Pass, hastening surrender and the end of German resistance in the area. In 114 days of combat, the 10th Mountain Division had decimated five elite German divisions, suffered 992 killed in action and 4,154 wounded.

Many of the men in the 10th Mountain Division came back to become legendary, world class climbers of their day. The 10th Mountain Division association membership book shows names of several former Mt. Rainier rangers and summit guides. Former rangers who served in the 10th include: Larry Jensen, Elvin R “Bob”/”Swede” Johnson, Cornelius M “K” Molnaar, Gordon K “Pat” Patterson, George R. Senner and Dar Williams.

A bronze memorial dedicated to the valor and bravery of the 10th Mountain Division is located in the Paradise Lodge area of Mt. Rainier National Park.


HistoryLink.org

Rainier Beach is located in the southeast corner of Seattle on the shore of Lake Washington, just inside the Seattle city limits and not far from Renton at the south end of the lake. Dubbed Atlantic City by Clarence D. Hillman (1870-1935), who developed much of the area in the 1890s, the Rainier Beach neighborhood also includes nearby communities such as Pritchard Island, once home to a Duwamish village, and Dunlap, named for the pioneer family that homesteaded the area and logged the huge timber. Like Hillman, the Dunlaps platted their land and sold home lots, taking advantage of the real estate boom that followed when the streetcar line from Seattle reached Rainier Beach in 1894. Trolley service ended in 1937, but the neighborhood boomed again during and after World War II. Rainier Beach Junior-Senior High School opened in 1960 to accommodate the post-war baby boom. Seward Park Estates, built to house war workers, became a low-income complex and saw substantial decline over the years. A high crime rate and deteriorating properties kept home prices in the area lower than in other parts of Seattle, making Rainier Beach home to a wide range of ethnic groups and nationalities. Eventually, a public-private partnership helped transform the housing project and the neighborhood enjoyed a dramatic drop in crime and resurgence in prosperity.

Lake People and Homesteaders

When Euro Americans arrived in the Puget Sound country, Native Americans made their homes along the salt water, along the rivers, and on the edges of lakes. On Lake Washington, several groups of the Duwamish tribe had established permanent winter villages of large cedar longhouses. Each structure could accommodate 20 to 30 members of extended families. The people who gathered their food in and around Lake Washington called themselves hah-chu-ahbsh or "lake people." On the southwest shore of the lake was an island with a settlement called tleelh-chus ("little island"). The island sat at the beginning of a trail through a valley that led northwest to the salt water at Elliott Bay. The land was covered with tall stands of fir, hemlock, and cedar. Settlers renamed tleelh-chus as Pritchard Island and called the valley Rainier Valley. The trail became an electric railway, then Rainier Avenue S.

The first homesteader in the area was Joseph Dunlap (d. 1893) who built a cabin at S Henderson Street and 50th Avenue S. Dunlap brought his family from Iowa by wagon (reportedly drawn by one white horse and one mule) over the Oregon Trail in September 1869. On Beacon Hill, he instructed his son, George to climb a tree and report what he saw. George described a flat valley with several creeks flowing into a large lake. Another account has Dunlap finding the canyon between the Duwamish River valley and Lake Washington while deer hunting. Between the Dunlap claim and the lake was a low swampy area called Dunlap Slough. Dunlap built a corral for farmers driving stock to Seattle along the old Native American trail and his log cabin became a frame home with two stories.

Those who settled south of the Dunlaps and close to the lake called their community Rainier Beach. Dunlap harvested cedar trees from his claim, skidded the logs down to the lake along S Henderson Street, and then rafted them to Dorr Forbes's sawmill in Juanita.

In 1880, Schleswig-Holsteiner Jurgen "John" Matthiesen purchased 80 acres north of the Dunlap property. He transported the lumber (payment for back wages as a sawyer) for his home from Port Madison on a boat, by way of Lake Union and Portage Bay. In 1883, Andrew B. Young bought the island where the lake people had lived. It was called Young's island until Alfred James Pritchard acquired it about 1900 and renamed it after himself.

The Interurban

Communication with Seattle was either by means of the trail through the forest or down the lake to the Black and Duwamish rivers. Residents often rowed boats to communities on the east side of Lake Washington to trade and to socialize.

In 1894, the rails and overhead wires of the Seattle and Rainier Beach Railway linked Seattle with Rainier Beach. The line reached Renton two years later. The trip to Seattle that had taken all day or longer now required two hours and 10 cents. Local residents paid a nickel. This line later became the Seattle, Renton and Southern and the neighborhoods of the Rainier Valley grew up around stations named Fairview, Island Switch, and Palmer's Crossing.

Real estate boom

Real estate opportunities beckoned and the pioneer Dunlap family subdivided their claim into tracts. They donated a school site in 1904 to replace the 1898 log cabin school house. The Dunlaps attached family names to streets. Henderson honored Catherine (Henderson) Dunlap, Fontenelle recalled the hometown in Iowa, and Pearl was the given name of several women in the family. The community came to be called Dunlap and a nearby development became Matthiesen.

Beginning in 1896, Clarence Hillman and his Hillman Investment Co. platted and developed many neighborhoods in and around Seattle including Green Lake, Hillman City, and Kennydale. In 1905, Hillman purchased one of the Dunlap tracts and designated it the Atlantic City Addition. He chose to name the development after the resort in New Jersey and he included a park area on the cove. The company built a pier, a bath house, a boat house, and picnic areas. Buyers were attracted to these amenities and snapped up lots.

Hillman was a sharp operator. When he got around to filing the plats with the city, the plan did not include the park. He had sold that property to other buyers. The original buyers sued and won. The property was returned to park purposes. In 1912, Hillman went to jail for mail fraud behind another scheme north of Everett.

In May 1903, the Seattle Mail and Herald reported,

In 1907, Seattle annexed into the city the communities of the Rainier Valley including Rainier Beach. Title to the park area passed to the city parks board. The city operated a boat house with rentals and offered light refreshments from a concession stand.

In 1917, the level of the lake dropped nine feet when the Lake Washington Ship Canal was cut through to Puget Sound. The Black River disappeared and Pritchard Island became a peninsula. Dunlap Sough went dry. Clay tennis courts came in that year, but the beach was not used because of the proximity of a sewer outfall. Pritchard Island to the north and Atlantic City to the south were developed as bathing beaches in 1934, with the help of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Although the community was known as Rainier Beach, Atlantic City stuck as the name of the park.

In 1937, trolley service ended and the tracks down the middle of Rainier Avenue S were removed. Rainier Avenue S was the main highway from Seattle to Renton and Snoqualmie Pass until 1940 when the new floating bridge across Lake Washington at Mount Baker was opened.

In 1960, Rainier Beach Junior-Senior High School was completed to handle the post-war baby boom in southeast Seattle. Residents of Rainier Beach were also avid patrons of the Seattle Public Library system. In 1947, when the neighborhood was served only by a bookmobile, the Rainier Beach stop was the busiest in the city. Ultimately two bookmobiles were needed to slake the literary thirst of readers. In 1966, the library established a small branch in a storefront on Rainier Avenue S. The operation moved to a vacant bank in 1971. In 1980, Rainier Beach moved to 9021 Rainier Avenue S, and became the largest branch in the system.

In 1977, Seattle established a Sister City relationship with the desert city of Be'ersheva, Israel. The city selected Atlantic City Park for renaming as Be'ersheva Park to honor that link, and to acknowledge the many Jews who had moved to the area. The process of renaming the park did not please all citizens though and the Parks Superintendent decided to keep Atlantic City as the name of the boat ramp and keep Be'ersheva for the park.

Decline and Rebirth

During World War II, the Seattle Housing Authority constructed Seward Park Estates to house war workers and, after the war, low-income residents. In the decades following the war, crime began to afflict the neighborhood. Businesses in the neighborhood closed. In 1997, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer printed:

A $22 million partnership of public and private agencies combined to transform the slum into homes for 800 to 1,000 working-class residents. Years of high crime in the area allowed new home buyers to acquire reasonably priced properties that had deteriorated. In 2001, the neighborhood was a mixture of ethnic and national groups. Between 1993 and 1997, serious crime dropped dramatically. The census of 1990 showed that the neighborhood was almost evenly balanced between white, black, and Asian Pacific Islander populations. Community leaders attracted businesses back to the area to occupy vacant properties.

The SCHOONER Project:
The Hon. Jan Drago
Seattle City Council
Seattle Department of Neighborhoods

Map showing location of Rainier Beach neighborhood of Seattle

Map by Chris Goodman, Courtesy HistoryLink

Rainier Beach, 1905

The Montera Pharmacy, Rainier Avenue S and S 57th Street, 1909

Courtesy Rainier Valley Historical Society

Rainier Beach Fuel Co. at Rainier Avenue South and South 51st Street, service station and stop on the interurban, ca. 1922


Rainier was founded in 1851 on the south bank of the Columbia River by Charles E. Fox, the town's first postman. First called Eminence, its name was later changed to Fox's Landing and finally to Rainier. The name Rainier was taken from Mount Rainier in Washington, which can be seen from hills above the city. Rainier was incorporated in 1881. [6]

For much of the last quarter of the twentieth century, Rainier was known to the rest of Oregon as home to Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, the only commercial nuclear reactor in the state, which supplied electricity to Portland and its suburbs starting in March 1976. This reactor was closed periodically due to structural problems, and in January 1993, it was decommissioned after cracks developed in the steam tubes. On May 21, 2006, the cooling tower was demolished.

The closing of the Trojan plant set off a decline in the number of businesses in the city. While some retail and services are available in the city, currently the only supermarket in the city is a Grocery Outlet. Services are available in neighboring Clatskanie, St. Helens, and in Longview, Washington. Longview is opposite Rainier, across the Columbia River, and connected to Rainier by the Lewis and Clark Bridge.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.62 square miles (6.79 km 2 ), of which 1.76 square miles (4.56 km 2 ) is land and 0.86 square miles (2.23 km 2 ) is water. [7]

Rainier is surrounded by a number of rural communities. In the past, these places acted as separate communities. Today, most businesses and services have left these rural sites, and the communities are part of a large unincorporated area that receive services out of Rainier. These communities include Fern Hill, Hudson, Alston, Apiary, Goble, and Prescott. Except for Prescott, which is an incorporated city (despite having neither a post office nor a separate telephone exchange), little remains to identify these places today other than left-over identifying signs or historic landmarks, such as abandoned or converted school buildings. Residents here may say they live in Rainier or will alternatively use the name of the individual community. [ citation needed ]

The Lewis and Clark Bridge spans the Columbia River, linking Rainier to Longview, Washington. It is the only bridge, that spans the entire width of the river, between Portland and Astoria, Oregon.

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890238
1900522 119.3%
19101,359 160.3%
19201,287 −5.3%
19301,353 5.1%
19401,183 −12.6%
19501,285 8.6%
19601,152 −10.4%
19701,731 50.3%
19801,655 −4.4%
19901,674 1.1%
20001,687 0.8%
20101,895 12.3%
2019 (est.)2,010 [3] 6.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [8]

2010 census Edit

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 1,895 people, 818 households, and 502 families living in the city. The population density was 1,076.7 inhabitants per square mile (415.7/km 2 ). There were 884 housing units at an average density of 502.3 per square mile (193.9/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 93.1% White, 0.2% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.

There were 818 households, of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.6% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the city was 34.9 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18 7% were between the ages of 18 and 24 22.8% were from 25 to 44 30.4% were from 45 to 64 and 17.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 1,687 people, 667 households, and 460 families living in the city. The population density was 1,044.8 people per square mile (404.6/km 2 ). There were 733 housing units at an average density of 453.9 per square mile (175.8/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 92.83% White, 0.06% African American, 1.48% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 3.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.85% of the population. 24.1% were of German, 11.3% Irish and 11.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 667 households, out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,949, and the median income for a family was $46,759. Males had a median income of $45,179 versus $23,036 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,511. About 8.4% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.9% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.


Monaco's royal family is allegedly cursed

The curse on Monaco's royal family goes like this, according to Irish Independent: Thirteenth-century Prince Rainier I was kidnapped and took advantage of a young woman. In an act of revenge, the woman proclaimed that no member of the Grimaldi family would ever have a happy marriage. While not much credence should be given to centuries-old legends, the fact that the story exists at all is enough for anyone to keep a watchful eye on the marriages of the Grimaldi family.

While there's no concrete evidence, of course, that there is a curse on the royal family of Monaco, their marriages haven't all been happy. According to the book The Pocket Guide To Royal Scandals, the royal family of Monaco has been riddled with affairs, bitter rivalries, and divorce over the years.

In relatively recent years, Prince Rainier III and Grace Kelly's children have brought further scandal to the Grimaldi family. According to the book, Princess Caroline has been married twice while Princess Stephanie ran away to a circus and has likewise been unlucky in love.


7 Things You Never Knew About Prince Rainier & Grace Kelly’s Relationship

It was a romance that captivated the world, a marriage that kept us entranced. They were two incredibly powerful people coming together to lead a country into the future. She was a world-famous actor who rose from up from the suburbs. He was the playboy prince of a tiny European principality who always knew what a luxurious life looked like.

Her name was Grace Kelly. His name was Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi, or simply Rainier III. They met in France, courted for a short while, got engaged in Philadelphia and whisked themselves back to Monaco &mdash the aforementioned principality whose throne Rainier ascended to in 1949 &mdash to spend their lives building up the glories of their tiny nation and remaining as glamorous as you might imagine. They had three children who would go on to create families that still mingle in the upper echelons of wealthy society. Kelly put her acting career on an indefinite hiatus, devoting herself to charity, motherhood and helping her husband.

On the occasion of what would have been their 62nd wedding anniversary, let’s take a look at the romance of Prince Rainier and Kelly once more. You may find there are facts the history books forgot to mention.

1. Grace Kelly’s family paid a dowry

Kelly’s family was fairly well to do after gaining a substantial amount of wealth from Kelly’s father’s business, but the dowry the family reportedly had to pay Rainier was exorbitant by anyone’s standards. According to Vogue, Kelly’s father claimed this was ridiculous &mdash “My daughter doesn&rsquot have to pay any man to marry her” &mdash but eventually forked the cash over.

2. Grace Kelly made Prince Rainier do dishes during their courtship

As revealed in the book Grace Kelly: Hollywood Dream Girl, Kelly didn’t let Rainier’s royal status go to her head. In fact, during their courtship, Kelly’s sister, Lizanne Kelly LeVine, recalled one particularly memorable dinner at which Kelly was treating Rainier like a regular Joe. “[My husband] and I were at our own little apartment, and we asked them over for dinner. [Rainier] fit in very well &mdash even helped with the dishes. Rainier, when we first met him, I think might have been a little shocked with us when we&rsquod say &lsquoCome on, Rennie,&rsquo you know. But he fit into the family beautifully.”

3. Prince Rainier almost courted another famous Hollywood blonde

Had history gone a different way, Rainier might have romantically pursued another famous Hollywood blonde: Marilyn Monroe. According to Vogue, Rainier’s friend (and future second husband of Jacqueline Kennedy) Aristotle Onassis suggested the playboy prince pursue Monroe. While Monroe reportedly had no interest in the prince romantically, Vogue implies she might have still pursued the relationship for the status it would have afforded her. That said, when Kelly and Rainier married, Monroe sent Kelly a telegram that read, “I&rsquom SO happy you found a way out of this business.”

4. Grace Kelly & Jackie O’s lives overlap in more than one way

Vogue notes that Kelly and Kennedy’s lives intersected in unusual ways more than once. In addition to Jackie’s soon-to-be second husband being a friend of Rainier’s and attempting to get involved in his romantic life, Kelly actually could have ended up the wife of another famous man who was decidedly not Rainier. Long before her royal wedding, Kelly was engaged to fashion designer Oleg Cassini, who worked with Kennedy frequently.

5. In a way, you can thank the Cannes Film Festival for their meeting

Kelly met Rainier while she was in France in 1955 as part of the American delegation to the Cannes Film Festival. Kelly was partaking in a photo shoot that Rainier attended, and it was all over from there. Interestingly, the couple had a rather short courtship (a little over a year) before heading to the altar.

6. Grace Kelly always chose her sovereign duties over her film career

High-profile film director Alfred Hitchcock famously tried to reel Kelly back in to take the lead role in Marnie in the early 󈨀s (this moment in Kelly’s life is part of the Nicole Kidman-led drama Grace of Monaco), and she seriously considered it for a short while. The palace of Monaco even announced she would be taking the role and then officially retiring. However, word spread that the titular role, which would see Kelly playing a thief and woman struggling with mental health issues, might not be the most becoming one for her to play. In addition to the roots she laid down as a wife and mother, Kelly soon gave up the role and another Hitchcock ingenue, Tippi Hedren, got the role instead.

7. There may have been some unhappiness in their later years

Given the nature of their very public, very politically charged position in the world, there were unthinkable pressures put on Rainier and Kelly. There were allegations that when Kelly sought out the comfort of an apartment in Paris she kept for herself, she would tell friends sometimes that she wished she was just a bag lady, likely because of the alleged tension between Kelly and Rainier toward the end of their marriage, although we don’t really have any evidence of this from the couple themselves.

Who could have known these two would put a relationship in the history books that still fascinates us this much? Like any marriage, Rainier and Kelly’s was never smooth sailing. But you’ve gotta admit, when things we good, they looked pretty darn good.


Paradise Inn: A History of Beauty and Challenge

The lure of Paradise has drawn people to the slopes of Mount Rainier for millennia. Local tribes like the Nisqually, Yakama, Puyallup, Cowlitz, and others, travelled to the Paradise meadows to hunt and gather. Early mountain climbers scaling the glaciers, used Paradise as a way stop. Paradise’s wildflower meadows also became a destination for some of the first tourists to the mountain. Before the creation of Mount Rainier National Park in 1899, people recognized a need for accommodations at Paradise. John Reese set up summer tent camps in the 1890s, offering people a place to eat and spend the night. As roads improved and more people came to Paradise, visitors were willing to pay for nicer accommodations than tent camps. Businessmen from Tacoma saw a chance to meet these needs and formed the Rainier National Park Company. After buying out Reese, the Rainier National Park Company moved ahead with plans for a lodge at Paradise.

Construction of the Paradise Inn began the summer of 1916. Ground was broken on July 20, and most of the lobby, dining room, and rooms above the dining room, were completed that first summer. Designed by Heath, Grove, and Bell with a large open timber frame, workers received permission to harvest dead Alaska yellow cedars a few miles down the road. A wildfire almost twenty years before had killed the trees but left them standing. Construction finished the following summer costing $91,000.

People seated near the piano and fireplace in the lobby of the Paradise Inn during the 1920s.

Opening on July 1, 1917, the inn had thirty-seven guest rooms and a dining room that could accommodate 400. Distinctive furnishing made by Hans Fraehnke enhanced the lobby, including woodwork of the registration desk, two massive cedar tables and chairs, a mail drop “stump”, and cases for the 14 foot tall clock and the piano. Originally, the lobby was lit by Japanese lanterns. These were probably replaced during a 1930s remodel when can-shaped parchment lanterns appeared, painted with different types of native plants.

The Mount Rainier Park Company planned on adding more guest rooms over time but the lack of visitors during World War I slowed their agenda. The long, snowy winters at Paradise also held them back, requiring that they close the inn each autumn for more than half the year. By 1920, enough guests were staying at the lodge that the company could start building again. Completed by the end of the year, the Paradise Inn Annex more than doubled the size of the inn, providing 104 more guest rooms.

Skiers stand atop snow in front of second story windows of the Paradise Inn in April, 1964.

The 1920s brought challenges for the Paradise Inn. The Great Depression rapidly decreased the number of people traveling to Paradise and the few that did come tended to camp or only visit for the day. The long winters also started posing challenges as the many feet of snow piled up against the building, slowly pushing it downhill. Structural braces were added to the timbers to help resist this extra stress every winter.

The end of the Great Depression and the victory of World War II failed to bring back guests to the Paradise Inn. The automobile changed how people visited Paradise. More and more, folks only came for the day and went back to town each evening. By the 1950s, the Mount Rainier Park Company couldn’t make a profit and sold the building to the National Park Service. The NPS began leasing the building to companies to run as a concession.

Rehabilitation work in August 2006 with chimney and fireplace removed.

The years and the extreme weather at Paradise were not kind to the Inn and maintenance needs piled up with little money to pay to fix them. Small projects were worked on over the decades but larger projects took time. 1980-81 brought a $2.8 million renovation for structural stabilization. From 2006 to 2008, another rehabilitation ensured the Inn’s lobby and dining room stood on a solid foundation and could withstand earthquakes better. Rehabilitation of the Annex and snow bridge was completed from 2017 through 2018 to assure the strength and safety of that part of the building as well. With this work, the National Park Service hopes that future visitors will continue to see and enjoy the historic, rustic beauty of the Paradise Inn.

Learn more about the services, attractions and hiking trails available at Paradise .


UFOs: A Background

Flying objects, not easily identifiable by the human eye, have been spotted all around the world for centuries. Those who reported seeing such mysterious objects often attributed them to spirits, angels, phantoms, ghosts or other supernatural phenomena. In 1938, with the specter of war looming in Europe, Orson Welles caused mass hysteria in America when his radio broadcast based on H.G. Wells’ science-fiction novel War of the Worlds suggested that meteor-like rocket ships carrying aliens were invading Earth.

Did you know? Some conspiracy-minded ufologists viewed Steven Spielberg&aposs Close Encounters of the Third Kind as an effort masterminded by the U.S. government to introduce the public to the concept of friendly aliens.

World War II and the accompanying development of rocket science marked a new level of interest in strange flying objects. Numerous Allied pilots flying at night over German reported seeing balls of light following their aircraft. Nicknamed 𠇏oo fighters,” these ghostly flyers were said to be one of Germany’s secret weapons varying explanations for the flares claimed they were optical illusions or results of the electrical phenomenon known as “St. Elmo’s Fire.”


Stalca yacht

In the early 70’s the princely couple of Monaco ordered a yacht from the Dutch shipyard Visch in Holland. By the standards of the time, it was considered quite large, but still not a superyacht. The English Queen Elizabeth II in contrast owned the 120-meter Britannia built in 1954 and accommodating up to 250 guests.

However, the yacht ordered from Visch was the one the Prince and his wife believed to be ideal for a family vacation. There was enough space to accommodate eight guests and a small crew. The layout of the yacht included a master suite, a VIP room and two double cabins.

The construction of Stalca was kept secret to avoid its mention in the press. It is therefore not surprising that its original photos are rare to be found. The princely family wanted to keep this part of their history just to themselves.

Surely, you must have heard of the princely family of Monaco. If so, you may guess where the name of the vessel comes from. It represents the initials for the names of Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace’s children: Stephanie, Albert and Caroline. The tradition of naming the yachts mixing in the names of the princely children dates back to 1963. That’s when Albercaro (II) was first launched into the waves. Interestingly, a fire broke out on board before the yacht’s delivery and the princely family had to wait until the next March to receive it. The yacht, however, did not stay in Monaco for long and a year later went to a new owner in Abu Dhabi.


Watch the video: Creative AE5-PLUS (July 2022).


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